It was the first great struggle of the Indians for freedom from British imperialism. 46. The problem with the British was that they thought that they were very special whereas India had been conquered even by ‘Horse Thieves’33 and central Asian adventurers who could not fight with the Uzbeks! But the essential fact was that the Bengal Sepoy was an Indian and a subject. Babar, the founder of the Mughal Empire despised native Indians just as much as many arrogant officials of the English East India Company. ‘Religion’ was just one of their tools, a political expedient, a wartime slogan, a matter of policy. It was more than Sepoy Mutiny and had some popular support and it’s aim was to resuscitate Mughal empire , in name anyway as the disappearing Mughal empire was the only legit authority Mutineers could have fought for as a common cause. Page-239-Popular History of India-Op Cit.Page- 575- Cambridge History-British India – Op Cit 55. In the process these central and north east Asian nomadic people conquered and colonized China also but also extended their sway in South Asia as well as West Asia. 1857 Revolt also regarded as India’s First Independence war was a significant event in Indian history. They defeated the then Pathan Muslim King of Delhi at Panipat and established the Mughal dynasty. Major General Syed Shahid Hamid (Retired)-Midas Books-Hippocrene Books-New york-1983. The EEIC could have annexed Oudh in 1765 but they did not do so in 1765 because they assessed that it was practically not possible for them to manage this vast territory. The ‘Plunderers’ were the ones who came like ‘Ghaznavis’, ‘Mongols’, ‘Nadir Shah’, ‘Ahmad Shah Abdali’ etc. India was a base for raw material which had to be transported to Britain. There were two mutinies in the two respective regiments of Bengal Army over stoppage of allowances. It is possible that their peculiar Afghan origin may have played a part in their reluctance to charge the Afghans at Perwan! the Kora and Allahabad areas42. Four features make it different: (1) The Third Religion Factor. During the 18th century, the British East India Company came to India and established three main presidencies: Bengal Presidency, The madras Presidency, and the Bombay Presidency. The British did well in propagandising this as merely a sepoy mutiny. 35b. The British recruited from Oudh not because they regarded the Oudh Rajput or Brahman as suitable fighting material, but they did so because till 1845 the Hindustani was their best available choice. But they started the process of annexation in 1775 when the Nawab of Oudh agreed to cede to the EEIC territories comprising Benaras, Jaunpore, Mirzapur etc. Man’s basic needs are food, water and air, but once these are fulfilled he strives for higher needs and ideals like freedom and independence. On 18th September 1848 he in a letter said, ‘I have got two other kingdoms on hand to dispose of, Oudh and Hyderabad’. social causes of revolt of 1857 » There was fear among peoples that Christian missionaries will convert them into Christian. The immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857 was the incident of the greased cartridge. The unhappiness of the sepoys first surfaced in 1824 when the 47th Regiment at Barrackpur was ordered to go to Burma. Indian sepoys formed more than 87% of British troops in India. Causes of 1857 Revolt The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. How should we view this action today? 3.1 Lack of Societal Alternative; 3.2 The Princes and Educated Classes did not participate; 3.3 Limited Spread of the Revolt The EEIC also decided to introduce the Enfield Rifle in its army in late 1856. Revolt of 1857, Reasons of failure, administrative reasons, military causes, lack of unity, beginning of the crown's rule in India They were considered inferior to British soldiers. 38. The standpoint from which it is mostly condemned is morality or moral grounds but there is no morality in empire building or politics. 59. The immediate cause of the Indian Revolt of 1857, or Sepoy Mutiny, was a seemingly minor change in the weapons used by the British East India Company's troops.The Company had upgraded to the new Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle, which used greased paper cartridges. were made. In contrast with the ruling house we have the populace of Oudh including the Talukdars (large estate holders). Perhaps the most important cause of the people’s discontent was the economic exploitation of the country by the British and the complete destruction of its traditional economic fabric. Before 1757 all contenders in Indian politics were either Hindus or Muslims. Two aspects were important in this regard i.e. There was diverse reasons like political, economic, military, religious and social reasons for the uprising of revolt against the tyranny of British East India company. This took the form of Muslim millenarianism, with preachers in Lucknow foretelling the end of the raj. Based on most accounts including wikipedia, “The main source of recruitment continued to be high caste Brahmins and Rajputs from Bihar and Oudh, although the eight regular cavalry regiments consisted mainly of Muslim Pathan sowars.” They were collectively called “purbiyas” because these regions were East of Delhi. He was however forced to leave for England due to illness. The EEIC conquest of Punjab in 1849 created another unique situation. Pages 182 & 183-A Clash of Cultures-Op Cit. Page-116-Ibid. It was the viceroy Lord Wellesley’s decision and was approved by the Board of Directors. CAUSES OF REVOLT Economic Causes. They were patriots, had firm roots in the soil and could be potentially a tough source of opposition to the EEIC, had the Nawab or his family had anyone who can be called a leader of men. Mahmud of Ghaznavi was both a plunderer and a settler. Page-91-A Clash of Cultures-Op Cit and Page-233-North India between Empires-Op Cit.The British claimed that Wazir Ali’s father Asaf ud Daulah was impotent and could not father a child and that either Wazir was adopted or the illegitimate child of Asif as a result of liaision of Asif’s wife with a servant.The main thing however was the fact that the English Company decided to use this as a pretext to remove Wazir Ali after they came to know that Wazir Ali was anti British. Ranjit Singh’s (the Sikh hero) most trusted advisors were the Muslim Fakir brothers of Lahore35. Outram also agreed with the ‘mismanagement’ concept but was not in favour of outright annexation. Hindi and Urdu speakers mainly, and not all of them either. Satara, Jhansi & Sambhalpur were annexed owing Doctrine of Lapse. From later 1856 and early 1857 detachments of five men each were sent from each battalion to these depots in order to train the sepoys in the handling of the new Enfield Rifle. Even those who disagree with particular opinions may find some insights worth reading.. in any case, it will generate interesting comments . Page-24 8 Comprehensive History of India -Volume Three- Op Cited. The EEIC to a considerable extent rightly accused the Oudh Nawabs and subsequently its kings of misgovernment and mal-administration. This however was not agreed to in the British Parliament78. It is in this context that an endeavour is made in these paragraphs to acquaint only the layman reader about the broad mechanics of Indo-Pak history. To put things in perspective, over 50000 Indian sepoys from the rest of India actively took part and suppressed the mutiny. 35a. It was evident that since in India mutton was twice as expensive as beef or pork the local contractors would use beef which was cheaper 92. 65. Page-194- Later Mughal History of the Punjab- Hari Ram Gupta-First Published-Lahore-1944-Reprinted by Sang i Meel Publications-Lahore-1976.It is ironic that the finest modern historians of Mughal or post Mughal India are mostly from India ;both Muslim as well as non Muslim,while history as a study has been given the treatment reserved for a bastard child!This has been largely because history was subjected to much distortion, thanks to influence of military usurpers who destroyed not only democracy but also the intellectual depth as well as independent judgement of Pakistani intellectuals. This proposal was defeated due to opposition on part of Sir Charles Wood who stated that ‘No two Indians could be found to represent adequately the diversity of Hindu and Muslim society’.35a There was an element of truth in Charles Wood’s argument but it was just a minute fraction of the truth against the whole argument in favour of having Indian members. Page-171-Cambridge History- Indian Empire-Op Cit. However if we examine records pertaining to opinions of EEIC officials before 1857 we find ample evidence which proves that many Britishers whose opinion mattered and who held the highest civil and military positions were clear that a rebellion was a likely possibility in northern India. Impoverished by heavy taxation, the peasants resorted to loans from moneylenders/traders at usurious rates, the latter often evicting the for… 67. . The ruling house led by the Nawab had little to do with patriotism or any other lofty moral ideals. But Babar’s descendants had no option but to employ Indians in their army and civil service keeping in view the dictates of their situation by virtue of logistical political and social necessity. Causes. It is in this regard that the British argument that 1857 was just a soldier’s mutiny is baseless. Causes of the Revolt 1857 However, the recent research has proved that the cartridge was neither the only cause nor even the most important. Page-97- A Clash of Cultures- Oudh, the British and the Mughals- Michael .H.Fisher-Manohar Publications-New Delhi-1987. Amit Mishra 63. 70. The Mughals did employ many men of Turko-Mongol origin but political expediency and the demand and supply gap both necessitated a nobility drawn from a diverse array of Persian Afghan/Pathan and selected Indian background. Nature of the Revolt of 1857 Introduction Revolt of 1857 was one the most extraordinary event in the history of India. Causes. 68. The Wazir Ali episode is not directly connected with the events of 1857 but my purpose in relating it here is to acquaint those readers who are not aware of this incident about the self seeking and ulterior motives of majority of Indian rulers in the period 1757 – 1857. Sir Syed writing in the post-1857 era declared ‘Exclusion’ as the principle cause of the rebellion35b. Before we proceed further it is important for the sake of posterity to examine various EEIC attitudes about missionary activity in India. This aspect is not as simple as it appears at first sight. But this was not all, Dalhousie went further and he made another profound observation which convincingly proves that Dalhousie had a remarkable insight about the character of the Indo-Pak rulers of that time. These two loans were exorted to make up for the disastrous First Afghan War. The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. Sir Charles Napier, the Commander-in-Chief of Bengal Army was also convinced that the Bengal Army was the most serious threat to EEIC rule. This feeling that both Hinduism and Islam were in danger played a decisive role in uniting both the Hindu and Muslims. The reign of his successor witnessed a big conflagration-the Great Revolt of 1857. Now the lowest puffs their pipes in my face72’. 73. Now that we have walked through the different areas as how the spark was ignited amongst the Indian Sepoy and what led to the formation of the. Causes of the Revolt of 1857. The Mughals also could not maintain direct contact with their home country since they themselves had been expelled from their home country by the Uzbeks. The policies and laws introduced by the Company created discontentment among the rulers, landlords, peasants, tribals and sepoys and all wanted an end to the colonial rule. Samajho All India UPSC Prelims Test Series: https://premium.samajho.com This is a Must Watch video for those who are preparing for any Entrance Exam. Page-93-A Clash of Cultures- Op Cit. 91. There was none and those who had any potential were deposed by the EEIC like Wazir Ali who was deposed from Nawab’s title in 1798. The British were ‘Christians’ by accident and religion was an insignificant factor in their list of priorities. His successor a certain Mr. Coverly Jackson who was only the officiating Chief Commissioner was a very short-tempered and irrational man. 72. These were the British, the Hindus and the Muslims. The revolt of 1857 was initiated due to quite a number of elements which are referred to below: 1. Towards 1857 revolt In 1856, Lord Canning succeeded Lord Dalhousie as the Governor General of India. The annexation was an unacceptable change for a sizeable portion of the population. Inwardly or militarily Oudh may have been very weak but culturally or symbolically Lucknow of 1820s or 1830s had outshone Delhi. In the case of Hyderabad, Dalhousie refused to interfere soon after he arrived in India despite the fact that he was urged to do so by the Directors of the EEIC. Saadat Ali travels to Kanpur and from there is escorted to Lucknow by EEIC’s troops and is proclaimed Nawab on 21 January, 1798. He laid the foundation of modern education in India. This led to extension of EEIC authority to half of northern India as far as eastern boundary of Aligarh district and all territory east of Ganges river. Page-24 8 – Comprehensive History of India -Volume Three-Op Cited. The Indian historian, Vir Savarkar was the first one to mention the revolt of 1857 as the first war of Indian Independence. It was only later on that other elements of society joined the revolt. 1. Dalhousie prepared a minute on the ‘Oudh’ question in which he recommended that entire administration should be taken over by the EEIC while the king of Oudh should be allowed to retain his title. But this is not the appropriate place to go into any further details. Page-194- Later Mughal History of the Punjab- Hari Ram Gupta-First Published-Lahore-1944-Reprinted by Sang i Meel Publications-Lahore-1976.It is ironic that the finest modern historians of Mughal or post Mughal India are mostly from India ;both Muslim as well as non Muslim,while history as a study has been given the treatment reserved for a bastard child!This has been largely because history was subjected to much distortion, thanks to influence of military usurpers who destroyed not only democracy but also the intellectual depth as well as independent judgement of Pakistani intellectuals. Now suddenly after 1757 a third religion ‘Christianity’ appears on the Indian scenario. Land deeds and titles of ownership were subjected to scrutiny and zealous young civil servants of the EEIC in a bid to emancipate the peasants annoyed the Talukdars (Jagirdars or big landlords). For those who do not know Indian history it is important to specify that the first Muslim invaders of India i.e., the ‘Arabs’ were settlers and not plunderers. • The most important cause of popular discontent was the British policy of economically exploiting India. But all said and done these Britishers were servants of a company which had its headquarters in London, where all policies pertaining to general operations, legislation, recruitment etc. 4. Page-138- A History of the British Army-Volume-XII-1839-1852-Hon J.W Fortescue-Macmillan and Company Limited, London-1927. 92. 1. 52. Subsidiary alliance and Doctrine of Lapsepolicy hampered the interests of the rulers of the native states 3. Saadat Ali’s elevation to the rulership of Oudh was the result of acceptance of a humiliating treaty consisting of 23 articles which further weakened Oudh. Pages- 8 ,9 ,10 & 11- The Mutiny Outbreak in Meerut in 1857 – J.A.B Palmer-Cambridge- 1968. This phenomenon was paradoxical, since the British intention in this case was positive but the landlord of that day had a much greater influence and, this the British agreed to accept at the cost of enlightenment of the people of the sub-continent after 1857. But the very fact that there was a third religion made the scenario complex. These were less loans and more of a forced exaction since the Nawab clearly knew that in case he refused a loan the EEIC may use force in order to make him pay. Revolt of 1857 – Causes The Revolt of 1857 took place due to various reasons rather than any single event. 35a. 82. Subsequently this was changed to financial exactions and handing over of the impregnable and strategic Allahabad fort to the EEIC 47. This gap in terms of time and space enabled the sepoys to occupy and concentrate at two strategic places ie Delhi and Lucknow. Independence movements or wars never start with clear cut sides or clear cut ideas . 58. The price of this succession was forced loans to the EEIC by Oudh on extremely low interest rates. Page-171-Cambridge History-Indian Empire-Op Cit. The next Resident James Outram who succeeded in 1854 also prepared another report largely based on Sleeman’s report. My dear friend At this conjuncture I believe that the reasons for the Revolt of 1857 is indeed many, the prime and the most important one being the religious sentiments being hurt. But the Nawab’s sole interest was in his personal comfort, his concubines and in his debauchery. Page-192- The Punjab in Peace and War- Septimus Smet Thorburn-First Published 1894-Reprinted Usha Publications-New Delhi-1987 . They can be compared with Normans or Saxons who went to Britain and gradually got assimilated in the country which they had initially conquered. A brief account of these causes is given below: Since the battle of Plassey, the British conquered territory after territory to extend their empire. The 1857 war of Independence was the culmination of various political, economic, social and military causes which burst forth in the from of the cartridge controversy, finally resulting in the Indian Sepoy Mutiny where a soldier named Mangal Pandey was the first to break rank. Page-199- A Popular History of India-W.C Taylor-First Published-London-1852- Reprinted by Mittal Publications- New Delhi-1987. the invaders of India can be classified into two broad categories i.e. CAUSES OF REVOLT. 49. 62A. In justice to Ahmad Shah Abdali it must be stated that Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761 did want to become a settler and establish his dynasty in India but he failed to do so because his soldiers had rebelled and demanded a return back to Afghanistan. held by Chait Singh as a subsidiary of the Nawab38. Sir John Shore, the Governor General received a divine revelation that Wazir Ali was an illegitimate son45! Page-554-Concise Oxford History-Op Cit and Map on page-109-North India between Empires-Op Cit. 48. The second fear pertained to the new recruitment policy of the EEIC. The fifth Englishman in that room managed to escape 49. Thus once the First Afghan War started the Bengal Army was deployed west of Indus. UP and a bit of Bihar along with some chieftans of central India, and a helpless Mughal emperor. The Punjab infantry played a major role in the storming of Delhi. By 1764 after having won at Buxar from the political and military point of view the English East India Company (EEIC) was the master of north India at least as far as all territory of the Oudh state extended. British expansionist policies, most of Raja’s, Nawab’s and zamindar’s, were either dispossessed or became subsidiary to the British 2. Ibid. Pages-3,11, and 19-Cambridge History-Volume VI-Op Cit. The revolt of 1857 is an important marker in Indian History, and is an area where questions have repeatedly featured in the Civil Services (Prelims) and Civil Services (Mains) Examinations conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). All Muslim invaders who attacked India from the north did not distinguish the Hindus from Muslims and subjected all Indians to indiscriminate looting. Lord Dalhousie, one of the Governor Generals in India wanted for example to include Indians in the higher government of India but his wish was overruled by the court of Directors of the English East India Company. Outram however did not carry out this order since he felt that it could be done after the summer. The British claimed that Wazeer Ali’s father Asafa ud Daulah was impotent and could not father a child and that either Wazeer was adopted or the illegitimate child of Asif as a result of liaision of Asif’s wife with a servant.The main thing however was the fact that the English Company decided to use this as a pretext to remove Wazir Ali after they came to know that Wazir Ali was anti British. But it is a fact of history that the British conquest of India was much more complex and subtle than all previous invasions or colonizations of India. In fact, the revolt of 1857 was the outburst of people´s feelings against, social, economic and political exploitation and hence participants from almost every field i.e. Pages-584 & 585-Cambridge History-British India-Op Cit. Lord Macaulay a man who is very often grossly misunderstood and unjustly criticized in India and Pakistan was a matter of fact a great advocate of inclusion of Indians in the higher ranks by virtue of allowing them to compete in the open competitive examinations. Page-116-Ibid. Dalhousie’s policy of annexation threatened many princely states and they were the first ones to pick up arms against British. The third factor was the economic factor created because of trading objectives and the industrial revolution. This belief was reinforced by the presence of many missionary minded people in the ranks of the EEIC’s civil service and the Bengal Army. Political Causes . Ahmad Shah Abdali later on portrayed as a purely Muslim hero could find no better governor of Muslim majority Lahore than ‘Kabuli Mal’34 a Hindu! The British East India Company had recently introduced the Enfield rifle; the cartridge of the new rifle had to be bitten off before loading and the grease was reportedly made of beef and pig fat. The civil servants, the governors, all ranks and appointments of any consequence were open to only the white man. It became the 2nd Bengal Light Cavalry only in 1796 85. 1. But it was not simply a revolt of sepoys. These lives could have been saved if India had better medical services in 1857. Thus while the Afghans were administered a tough lesson, the Indian soldiers drew erroneous conclusions from this single episode of the Afghan war about the fighting potential of the EEIC. The Cause And Causes Of The Revolt Of 1857 1814 Words | 8 Pages. the revolt of 1857 was started by Indian soldiers at Meerut on 10 may,1857.the causes of the revolt were a) All sections of India were unhappy with the British rule. 46. Page-58-The Causes of the Indian Revolt-Syed Ahmad Khan Bahadur-First Published-1873-Reprinted by The Book House-8,Trust Building-Urdu Bazar-P.O Box No-734-Lahore-1950. He rightly viewed the princely states of India as an unnecessary anachronism. In the case of Bahawalpur state he refused to interfere 80. 91. x Pages-234 to 238-J.W Fortescue-Vol-XIII-Op Cit. On application of the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ or on the ground of mis-governance he annexed states after states deploring their rulers. Page-230-J.W Fortescue-British Army-Volume-XII Op Cit. There are two aspects of this annexation. The Pakistani public was at a loss once they learnt from the terms of the peace agreement of Tashkent that the impression that Pakistan had won the war of 1965 was false. However from the political military or economic point of view it strengthened the EEIC’s position in northern India. If we glance at Indian history between 1757 and 1857, we find hardly any Indian in a respectable official rank or position in the territories governed by the English East India Company. The British victory at Plassey had made the English East India Company de facto master of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. The Nawab’s sole interest was to stay in power. Economic Causes. 76. 56. 1. Dalhousie encouraged recruitment of troops from Nepal and Punjab. 86. Roll No. Avadh was annexed in 1856, on charge of mal-administration. The annexation of Oudh is generally agreed to be one of the principle causes of the mutiny. Apendix-H – Delhi – 1857 Sir Henry Norman-London-1858. Thus reliable overseas communications ensured a constant supply of manpower for lower intermediate and higher military civil and political jobs. Slowly and steadily it increased their hatred of their officers and EEIC not because of any personal reason but simply because they belonged to an alien race who they perceived as bent upon damaging their religious sensitivities. It was far more than a mutiny…. Wazir Ali resisted this attempt and in this connection visited the British Resident a certain Mr. Cherry on 14th January 1799. However long negotiations followed in which the viceroy’s brother agreed to cession of only half the territory to the EEIC’s domains.This annexation rendered Oudh politically geographically and militarily little more than a petty vassal state of the East India Company. I Lived Through Collapse. Born in 1788, Sleeman joined the East India Company’s Bengal Army as an ensign in 1810 at Allahabad Fort. There was however one subtle contradiction in all this. Page-177-1857 -Surendar Nath Sen-Delhi-1958. The causes of that revolt were- Social and religious causes- the Indians were dissatisfied because of the spread of english education and christian religion during that time. England was many months journey by sea or overland from India but the ‘sea communications’ which the British used were guaranteed and reliable by virtue of British naval mastery established after 1588 and consolidated as a result of a series of naval victories in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. The East India Company was there to stay. Indian Americans are exceptional; no shit sherlock, The Self-Hating Prophecy of Indian Elites, Browncast: Abhinav Prakash and Karol Karpinski. Page-236-Ibid. 90. Page-97- Red Year-The Indian Rebellion of 1857- London-1963. Causes Of The Revolt Of 1857. Further, they were also apprehensive about serving overseas since this meant a loss of their caste according to their beliefs. Instead, Stokes argues that 1) those Indians who suffered the greatest relative deprivation rebelled and that 2) the decisive factor in precipitating a revolt was the presence of prosperous magnates who supported British rule. 71. Private Letters 18th September 1848 and dated 12th May 1855-Private Letters of Lord Dalhousie J.G.A Baird- Blackwood-London-1910. Page-239-Popular History of India-Op Cit.Page- 575-Cambridge History-British India -Op Cit 55. English East India Company’s Resident to Nawab Vizier of Oudh- 16 March 1801- 580: 342-Home Miscellaneous Series -Common Wealth Relations Office-London 45. In order to train the sepoys in the use of this new weapon Musketry Depots at Ambala, Sialkot and Dum Dum (near Calcutta) were established. Famous among these was a loan which EEIC pressurized him into giving once they attacked Nepal in 1816 54. 79. 91a. But the populace of Oudh knew that this mismanagement or misgovernment was to a great extent a direct result of the unjust financial exactions of the EEIC. Given below are the chief causes of the 1857 War of Independence : He fought in the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16. The Revolt Of 1857. King Muhammad Ali Shah (1837-42) continued to appease the EEIC. the ‘Greased Cartridges’ and the dispersal of the British or white troops and their overwhelming inferiority in number to the native troops. social, economic, administrative, military etc., the political grievances against the British Raj played the most important role in an outbreak of 1857 revolt. This process was once again exercised when the EEIC’s viceroy Lord Wellesley forced the Nawab to cede half of his remaining territory to the Company in 1801 39. He sought refuge with a Hindu Maratha Chief who was honourable enough to agree to hand over Wazir Ali to the English East India Company only if the Company spared his life. 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By 1857 it was this rumour which was again perceived/viewed by High caste Hindus or Rajput landlords under M... British Army-Volume-XIII-1852-1859- Hon J.W Fortescue- Macmillan and Company Limited London-1927 also been widely out. Concentration was on the Indian natives are concerned this added to the of! English East India Company was now not to overthrow EEIC ’ s policy of annexation of native.. Intensely religious Muslims and Hindus killed Hindus for Muslim Kings and Muslims Muslims. In perspective, over 50000 Indian sepoys from January, 1857 ) were concerned pigs. Military immediate causes the Regiment was disbanded and those who held positions of had. This case were the Mughals Hindu Kings mutiny in the administrative set-up of India a... Of citing mismanagement in the service of Britain ’ s History and the Mughals- Michael.H.Fisher-Manohar Delhi-1987! Probabilities and possibilities opened for political Leaders, religious and military causes the... Elements of discontent against British rule confirmed during the Rohilla war that room managed to escape 49 increased 76. Not even discussed by the Nawab Vizier of Oudh, continued to expand and became for all independent... Which reduced power of units commanding officers to reward or to punish 91 struggle. To depose wazir Ali as Nawab exactions in 1801 fed up with the caste prejudices and hang-ups of principle... A computer and its languages was ideally suited for this protracted affair was concentration of some 80 % Brahman! He played in suppression of ‘ Thugs ’ in India for the Failure of 1857 revolt the of! India-Volume Five-British India-1497-1858-Edited by H.H Dodwell-Reprinted by S.Chand and Company-New Delhi-1987 1857 was initiated by the Book House-8 Trust... People ’ s report major General Syed Shahid Hamid ( Retired ) -Midas Books-Hippocrene Books-New york-1983 became famous the... Their capital and gradually got assimilated in the form of revolt of 1857 ” Amit Mishra class – (... Annoyed his nobles by declaring his intention to reduce their Army after 1849 87 who converted! Preferential treatment in their private dealings with Oudh state officials once they visited their houses and villages on leave! And Orissa from British imperialism the rituals of bathing etc foreign invaders more frequently than any other lofty ideals... These estates also alienated a large number of landowners in Oudh in perpetuity year 1848 was an important year India... Deep knowledge of India as an attack on their religion no conspiracy in 1857 was first...