Unless otherwise specified, all content is made available under the CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 Licence, though additional terms may apply. It is an arid climatic zone characterised by sandy soil, a rocky sub-stratum and scarce water resources. Knowledge Traditions Practices and Rituals Natural Environment. The ground-dwelling Great Indian Bustard stands at 3.5 feet in height and 30 pounds in weight; it has a long neck and massive legs, and feeds on rats, ants, and insects. It offers numerous medical applications to treat asthma, leucoderma and leprosy. Fauna - The Thar Desert In the Thar desert there are a many different kinds of animals that are made to survive in the desert. Version 1. Low rainfall, intense sunlight and dry winds have led to numerous xerophytic plant adaptations. Online at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.403.6008&rep=rep1&type=pdf (viewed on September 18, 2017). Talking about the Thar Desert, there are 11 national parks out of which the largest ones are Desert National Park and Rann of Kutch. The native plant species have adaptations that enable them to reproduce, grow and survive in the most inhospitable edaphoclimatic conditions. The Thar Desert is also home to 25 native species of snakes. Generations of lore and logic have distilled a bank of knowledge on the medicinal properties of arid plant species, which is now being used for commercial ayurvedic preparations too. The trees are commonly lacking, shrubs are the dominant perennials, most of which form thickets e.g. Delhi: Penguin Books. In general, these species are scattered in the Thar desert, but in some districts, their population is dense. Monkeys, birds and bats relish the fruit, and the leaves are excellent fodder for large animals. Birds twitter in appreciation of the dawn, deer emerge furtively from the scrub, and, above, against the brightening canvas of the sky, eagles, harriers and hawks wheel and circle looking for the first morsels of the morning. Thapar, Valmik. Tandon 15. There are about 30 plant species in arid zone known for their edible use and of these about 20 plant species are known for their edible fruits either raw or use as vegetable (Tewari 2016:1). Sadly, it is critically endangered. A study of the perennials of the region states: Nowhere in the world are they so intricately associated with the life of human beings as in arid areas. Malini Saigal is a postgraduate in history and a graphic designer. These include the saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and the rat snakes, including the dhaman or Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa). in Article. A total of 20 species have been reported from different areas of the state. They live in herds ranging from five to fifty individuals. . Caracal, Asian steppe wildcat, Indian desert cat and Asiatic wildcat are all the same animal, known scientifically as Felis silvestris ornata. Their centuries-old experiences, under diverse socioeconomic and cultural conditions, were passed from generation to generation and have established well-contained systems of production (agropastoral/livestock husbandry) which accrue maximum benefits from their woody component(s) (Sharma and Tewari 2016:5). Thar desert 1. It is one of the most famous antelopes native to the Thar Desert, but it is a near threatened species. There are about 23 species of lizard found in great desert of India few of them are scaber,Gecko and the Monitor lizard. These are some of the native animals of the Thar Desert. Also to be heard is the insistent call of the titars and the excited chirping of sparrows. Coleoptera (Insecta) fauna from the Indian Thar Desert, Rajasthan @article{Kazmi2004ColeopteraF, title={Coleoptera (Insecta) fauna from the Indian Thar Desert, Rajasthan}, author={Sarfrazul Islam Kazmi and Vilayanoor Venkataraman Ramamurthy}, journal={Zoos' Print Journal}, year={2004}, volume={19}, pages={1447-1448} } These large, majestic birds with massive wingspan feed on partridges, doves, spurfowl, and snakes. The genus Camelus includes three different species: the Bactrian or two-humped camel (C. bactrianus), the wild Bactrian camel (C. ferus) and the dromedary (C. dromedarius), recognizable because it has only one hump. An envoy of Maharana Bheem Singh of Mewar explained to Tod, ‘Wherever the anwal [Cassia aurigulata] puts forth its yellow blossom, the land is of right ours . Water harvesting and careful soil management has transformed the site into a well-watered site, with a rich cover of indigenous, resilient desert flora, an ideal nesting ground for the numerous birds of the area. Succulents like cactus are able to store water in its tissues. A temple at Khejarli marks the site of the massacre and every year thousands of Bishnoi congregate to commemorate the sacrifice of their ancestors. This wildcat subspecies occurs from eastern Caspian north to Kazakhstan into west India, western China and southern parts of Mongolia, which explains the different variations of its name. 'The Thar of Rajasthan (India): Ecology and Conservation of a Desert Ecosystem', in Faunal Ecology and Conservation of the Great Indian Desert, eds. ———. Online at http://environment.rajasthan.gov.in/content/environment/en/rajasthan-state-biodiversity-board/about-rajasthan/threatened-species-of-rajasthan.html(viewed on September 18, 2017). Thhor is the most visible cactus of this region that grows in a widening circle, providing, within its stalks, a protected, shady microhabitat for other plants. Rajasthan has several national parks which are home to animals including nilgai, camel, blackbuck, Indian wild ass, and chinkara. Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. 'Ranaram Bishnoi, the 75-year-old who stopped the March of the Desert​', YourStory ​April 25. With less than 10 inches of rainfall in 2016, the temperature in this arid region varies from freezing cold in winter to over 100º F (38º C) in summer. It resembles the Bengal fox and the fennec fox, but they are not actually related. Desert snakes hide easily in the sand and hunt insects and lizards. The flora in the thar desert does not need much rain to survive. Harvard: Harvard University Press. The Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps) is among the heaviest flying birds in India. The rich but sparse vegetation includes tree species, small shrubs, and medicinal herbs. The fauna of arid regions are similarly adapted to the extreme conditions. Sharma, Meghendra and Ashwani Kumar. Badh (Ficus benghalensis): All parts of this venerable tree have varied medicinal uses. In terms of land-forms, the desert can be classified into sandy, gravel, rocky and ruderal habitat types, the sandy habitat type constituting the major part of the Thar Desert. Its flowers are pounded, mixed with sugars and eaten by pregnant women to safeguard against miscarriage. The Thar Desert in India is rich in biodiversity and is home to several flora and fauna species. Several species of larks, finches, wheatears and tits can be found in the region. Online at http://www.springer.com/cda/content/document/cda_downloaddocument/9783540874089-c1.pdf?SGWID=0-0-45-656808-p173843214 (viewed on September 18, 2017). Hortipedia: The GardenInfo Portal. The Thar or Great Indian Desert has an unmatched variety of fauna; while its climatic and geographical conditions are harsh, various desert animals and plants have adapted to live in them with ease. Both these adaptations can be seen in aak (Caliotropis procera), a common shrub that also acts as a sand binder on the dunes. Mehra. Another day has begun in the desert, that vast expanse of stunning contrast and enduring beauty, where survival is both a matter of daily effort and exultation. TharDesert (also• The Thar Desert known as the Great Indian Desert), is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. The Indian or Hardwicke's spiny-tailed lizard is listed as a vulnerable species, as it is hunted for meat and as folk medicine. Published on: 12 July 2018. Eco-biodiversity of Rodent fauna of Thar Desert Mohamed Idris 14. Thar Desert-This covers west and north west part of state occupying 61% of total land area. About 85% of the Thar Desert is in India, and the remaining part in Pakistan. Nowadays, the Thar Desert is the most populated desert in the world, with crop cultivation, farming, and construction on the rise. DOI: 10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.1008.1447-8 Corpus ID: 129985656. The Animals in the Thar desert are built so that they can stay out in the heat for a long time and go for a while without water. Native Australian Animals List And Pictures, 10 Native Monkeys of India - With Pictures, What is the State Animal of...? Stay with us at AnimalWised and discover the native animals of the Thar Desert. For any queries, comments, or feedback, please contact Sahapedia at contact@sahapedia.org, Hortipedia: The GardenInfo Portal. Austa, Sanjoy. The native plant species have adaptations that enable them to reproduce, grow and survive in the most inhospitable edaphoclimatic conditions. Some plants have fine hair on the surface of leaves to break the airflow or a wax coating on the leaf surface to reflect sunlight. There are also lakes and salt marshes. The Bishnoi tribe practice a form of ‘ecoreligion’ that holds all life forms including trees to be sacred, and go to great lengths to conserve the ecology of their area. The Plants of the Thar Desert. The varied grasses, shrubs and low branches of trees provide fodder for sheep, camels and cattle. Also to be seen are the bulbul (peencho), kites (cheel) and crows (kagla). Ber (Ziziphius mauritania): The tangy-sweet fruit is rich in Vitamin C. It is eaten raw, or dried, powdered and mixed with molasses or bajra flour. Here you can discover the differences between a donkey, a mule and an ass. The Thar desert has many wildlife species. Stems and new leaves are ground and the paste is applied to cure boils and swellings. There is even a vigilante group called the Bishnoi Tiger Force patrolling the Jodhpur district[1]. Tewari, V.P. Tourists have been visiting desert both before and after independence. The critically endangered great Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), historically used to be distributed across 11 Indian states and even Pakistan but the grassland patches of the Thar are now their last remaining stronghold with less than 500 pairs at the last count in 2016. The prevalent wildlife includes the leopard, the Asiatic wild cat (Felis silvestris ornata), the chinkara (Gazella bennettii), the chousingha (Tetracerus quadricornis), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the Bengal desert fox (Vulpes bengalensis) and various reptiles. Kankane. In the upper desert half of Nagarparkar, hyaena is … Paste of coal from wood is applied externally to muscular injuries. Intriguing Facts About The Desert of Thar. Other wild birds of prey found in the desert include the Indian vulture (Gyps indicus), the Shaheen falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinator), and the white-eyed buzzard (Butastur teesa). The Thar is also home to many varieties of raptors. Flowers of India. Online at http://www.flowersofindia.net (viewed on September 18, 2017). The story of the courageous Amrita Devi Bishnoi is legendary, and seen as a precursor of the later Chipko movement. Absent such features, I wondered if it might be difficult to match the varied flora and fauna found in our North American Desert. The Greater Spotted Eagles along with Long legged buzzard and other species of vultures,Short-toed Snake Eagle and Great Indian Bustard are few most common birds of thar desert. Powdered root bark is taken with hot water to cure asthma and cough, and as a laxative. When the people who live there grow crops they usually lose about 33% of it. The powder of root bark is used as a cure for leucorrhoea and diabetes. The leaves provide fodder, and the root, bark and fruit are used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation, rheumatism and digestive ailments. Ram, Sonu, Arun Vats, and Ajay Kumar Sharma. Flora & Fauna. A large number of mammalian fauna are found in these habitats, including 18 rodent species belonging to 11 genera and three families. It covers some 77,000 square miles (200,000 square km) of territory. The dried bark and its paste are used to cure rheumatism. Clumps of kheemp bushes cling to the sand slopes, while the sturdy, prickly ranks of the thhor cactus stand ready to face the blaze of day. 2015. The Thar Desert map, has within its boundaries, a number of highlights that are sure to leave the traveller awe-struck. The fauna of arid regions are similarly adapted to the extreme conditions. In times of crop scarcity, fruit, roots and seeds of wild plants supplement the diet. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region. Some plants have evolved specia… This odd-toed ungulate is considered near threatened by IUCN. The white-footed fox is hunts sand grouse, partridges, and shrike. Thar Desert, arid region of rolling sand hills on the Indian subcontinent. Insect diversity in the Thar desert – S.K. To reduce the surface area of leaves, xerophytic plants such as the kumatiyo (Acacia senegal), ber (Zizyphus mauritiana), and googal (Commiphora wightii) have fewer branches, smaller leaves and thorns/spines. Though not strictly accurate, this commonly held belief links regional identity, flora and history (Hughes 2013:103–04). It comprises of Insects such as Anopheles mosquito, Caterpillar, Scorpions, Spiders, Lice, Ants, Butterflies, Moths and Roaches. In general, the plant species of arid zones have xeromorphological leaf structures, physiological control of transpiration and metabolism, moisture and nutrient storage organs, and thorns (Sharma and Tewari 2016:4). At various times of the year, particularly the short rainy season, the brown and green landscape is enlivened by bursts of bright white, pink, orange, red and yellow as the various plant species come into flower and fruit. You can see the artifacts as well as flora and fauna from back in time. Of the 68 species, 29 species are listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, requiring varying degrees of protection. In his tome on Rajputana, James Tod described the origin of a popular Mewari saying, ‘anwal, anwal Mewar, bawal, bawal Marwar’ which makes plants the basis for territorial divide between the frequently feuding states. Come dusk, the harsh calls of the mor or Indian peafowl contrast with the softer tones of the tidodi (lapwing) and the kamedi (collared dove). A wide variety of birds and animals can be found in the Thar desert. It is about 5.9 ft (1.8 m) tall and weighs about 900 pounds. Berkeley: University of California Press. The blackbuck stands to around 2 feet (85 cm), and males have beautiful twisted, ringed horns up to 75 cm (30 in) long. Online at http://www.efloraofgandhinagar.in/herb/aerva-sanguinolenta (viewed on September 18, 2017). Among the many insects that live in the Thar are beetles, moths, butterflies, bees, wasps, and grasshoppers. The timber is highly regarded and used for furniture, printing blocks and implements. The order Rodentia dominated the mammalian fauna of Thar Desert, followed by Carnivora, covering four talukas of Tharparkar district. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. The Avifauna of Thar Desert has a long list of Bird of Prey along with other species of migratory as well as resident birds of thar desert. The habitat and distribution of these species in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan has been systematically presented in this chapter. The Thar Desert, the pride of Rajasthan, is also called an ocean of sand. The Asiatic wildcat is a small feline, weighing around 7 pounds. Yet, despite the difficult terrain, the desert does bloom, and a wide variety of hardy plants comprise a vegetative zone called the North-western Thorn Scrub Forest consisting of perennial and annual grasses, shrubs and small trees. The desert cats feed on deer, rodents, rabbits and lizards. It was also home to some of the oldest civilizations in the world, such as the Indus Valley Civilisation of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro from the Bronze Age. The Thar Desert is a haven for 141 species of migratory and residential birds, including the national bird of India, the peacock. Landmark Trees of India. Earthworm fauna of Indian Thar Desert (Oligochaeta) Ghanshyam Tripathi, Kesu Ram Panwar Abstract. Odonata in the Thar desert - M. Prasad 16. By using this site, you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. . A Bishnoi couple: the Bishnois believe all life—plant and animal—to be sacred. There are four bustard species in the genus, but the Great Indian Bustard is only found in the Thar Desert. It also makes good charcoal and fuel wood.Â. Kapoor, B.B.S., and Swati Lakhera. The animals found in the Great Thar Desert include species of reptile, desert scorpions, mongoose, red fox, falcons, and Chinkara. The Indian spotted eagle (Clanga hastata) is one of the biggest flying predators and threatened species found in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan. The flowers yield honey. Some plants have evolved special root systems, while other have unique leaf characteristics that allow them to withstand prolonged periods of drought. Here you can learn all about the differences between camels and dromedaries. Dark brown in color, blackbucks have a white circle around their eyes and black stripes on their faces. The grounded inflorescence mixed with sugar in water is used for prevention of boils and skin diseases. Online at, By using this site, you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Here you can learn more about the types of wild cats around the world. The diversified topography of the desert region has resulted in a rich flora and fauna at Thar. The soil varies in depth, nutrient value and its capacity to retain water. Bikaner-Jaisalmer-Jodhpur-Osian- Sikar-Mandawa in Rajasthan are important travel destinations. 2016. ‘Ethno-Medicinal Uses of Some plants of Suratgarh Tehsil, Sriganganagar (Rajasthan),’ International Journal of Applied Research. Have you ever been there? ‘This mass slaughter led to a royal order that prohibited the cutting of any tree in a Bishnoi village’ (Thapar 1997:179). The wood is hardy and used for farm implements and beams. The orange resin deposited on the leaves by the lac insect is used to make shellac. Let the Marwaris enjoy their stunted babuls (Acacia nilotica), their karil (Capparis decidua) and the ak (Caliotropis procera) but give us back our sacred pipal (Ficus religiosa) and the anwal of the border’ (Tod 1920:803). Malini Saigal . There are around 23 native species of lizards in the Thar Desert. Status of Indian Gazelle (Gazella Bennetti Sykes, 1831) in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan, India Sumit Dookia 16. Animal Kingdoms. Flora - The Thar Desert. The Indian gazelle, also known as chinkara, is scientifically called Gazella bennettii. The Thar Desert can be divided into three main geographic regions depending on their landscape: sand, plains and hills. Many woody species simply lose their leaves when soil moisture conditions become too dry. Rainfall is limited, and groundwater tends towards salinity and excessive mineralisation. When officials of the Jodhpur state arrived to cut the trees in her Bishnoi village for wood, she hugged the first khejri tree and literally came between the tree and the woodcutter’s axe. Chinkaras avoid areas where humans reside, so the Thar Desert is a good habitat for them. Online at http://en.hortipedia.com/wiki/Main_Page (viewed on September 18, 2017). The simplest adjustment is to have a shorter lifecycle, which is found in the desert ephemerals that germinate in the first rains in July and die out by the time the soil dries up by December, leaving behind seeds that will bloom again next year. There are over 141 species of migratory and resident birds in the Thar region. The various desert animals and plants are adapted to survive in adverse climatic conditions.The animals of the great thar desert include numerous species of reptile, desert scorpions, mongoose, red fox, chinkara and falcons. In addition, the gradual lessening of grassland/forest cover has added another dimension to the struggle for survival. Sharma, K.K. The Rann of Kutch is the only protected area and natural habitat for the Indian Wild Ass, an endangered species of India. In 1778, 294 Bishnoi men and 69 women sacrificed their lives to protect trees led by the example of Amrita Devi. Studies were carried out to explore earthworm fauna in a part of Indian Thar Desert. The monsoon rains create a carpet of green on the sandy soilÂ, The brief monsoon fills up small ponds and lakes in the region. Besides, there are Indian spiny-tailed lizards, saw-scaled vipers, Asiatic wildcats, and white-footed fox. Tell us all about it in the comments section! Also known scientifically as Saara hardwickii, this small lizard is a spiny-tailed creature found crouching in the Thar Desert. She is also a trained botanical artist and is working on a series of artworks on desert … Over 2 feet (65 cm) tall and a weight of around 50 pounds, the chinkara has a buff-colored coat with dark stripes from the muzzle to the corner of its eye. Grassland Index. Its 11 national parks, covering 44,000 square kilometers, are the only source of protection for the native animals of the Thar Desert. (All photos in this article are taken by the author.). Their horns can reach more than one feet in length. E-Flora of Gandhinagar. C. Sivaperuman et al. Cream-coloured courser (Cursorius cursor) and chestnut-bellied sandgrouses (Pterocles exustus) often go unnoticed as they blend into the sandy-coloured landscape. 13. Hughes, Julie E. 2013. Though not native to arid regions, it has been widely naturalised; Hindus worship it as the consort of the pipal. Its latex is used to treat rheumatic pains, the leaves cure abscesses and root fibres are used to treat gonorrhoea. This stunning diversity includes dangerous animals, such as sand boas (Erycinae) and cobras (Elapidae). The bark and wood also yield a cinnamon-coloured dye and tanning material. There are currently 11 national parks in the Thar Desert, the largest of which are the Rann of Kutch and the Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuaries. It inhabits scrub areas, including the Rajasthan, so it is a native animal of the Thar Desert. Drylloid fauna of Thar desert – R.N. Gupta 12. Their coat is sandy or rusty red with light gray or white patches, while most of the tail and the tips of the ears are black. Durvey tentatively identified the cave fish as belonging to the Schizothoracine family of snow trout, a type of carp that are normally restricted to the cool mountain streams of the Himalayas. The perennial grasses and thorny shrubs provide fodder for chinkara as well as the livestock herds of local communities. Sahapedia® is a registered trademark of Sahapedia, a non-profit organisation registered under the Societies Registration Act of 1860. The Indian desert cat avoids those areas associated with human habitation. For any queries, comments, or feedback, please contact Sahapedia at, छत्तीसगढ़ी Chhattisgarhi, Photo Essay on Arna Jharna: The Desert Museum, Arna Jharna as a Desert Museum: Guide To Further Readings, The Desert Frontier: A History of Travel and Nomadism, Bishnoi Tiger Force patrolling the Jodhpur district, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.403.6008&rep=rep1&type=pdf, http://environment.rajasthan.gov.in/content/environment/en/rajasthan-state-biodiversity-board/about-rajasthan/threatened-species-of-rajasthan.html, http://www.springer.com/cda/content/document/cda_downloaddocument/9783540874089-c1.pdf?SGWID=0-0-45-656808-p173843214, http://austinpublishinggroup.com/jpceonline/download.php?file=fulltext/jpce-v1-id1004.pdf, http://www.efloraofgandhinagar.in/herb/aerva-sanguinolenta, http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/gbase/latinsearch.htm, https://outreachecology.com/landmark/overview/outreach/, Vintage Typewriters: Lifeline of Indian Courts, Diwali Celebrations of the Nepali Community of…, The Festival of Lights in Various Religious and…, Diwali: The Various Shades of the Festival of…, The Evolving Storyline of Rajasthan’s Kaavad, One Story that is Many: Rama Katha in the…, The Sundarbans: Disaster, Damage and Displacement, S. Irfan Habib in Conversation with S. M.…, History of Taziya in India: The Symbol of…, കേരളത്തിന്റെ തനതു പന്തുകളികള്‍, നാടന്‍ പന്തുകളി: ഒരു കേരളീയ ജനപ്രിയ കായികവിനോദം. A dry, desert breeze blows incessantly, and leads to shifting sand dunes and sand sheets that cover arable lands and grazing pastures. Bhargava 17. 2 vols, ed. Jungle Trees of Central India. Fauna of the Thar Desert —located in western India and eastern Pakistan Pages in category "Fauna of the Thar Desert" The following 4 pages are in this category, out of 4 total. 2013. 'Ethnobotanical Uses of Medicinal Plants: A Review', International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research ​3.2:52–57. Online at http://docplayer.net/38487969-Ethnobotanical-uses-of-medicinal-plants-a-review-abstract.html (viewed on September 18, 2017). One should think of travelling here to see one the many-forested patches spread over 2,00,000 sq km of the desert. Online at http://austinpublishinggroup.com/jpceonline/download.php?file=fulltext/jpce-v1-id1004.pdf (viewed on September 18, 2017). Here you can learn more about the difference between a colubrid and a snake, and all the basic requirements to keep snakes as pets. 'Threatened Species of Rajasthan'. Plants which can either adapt themselves to high temperatures or to low temperatures and discouraging conditions of soil and rainfall can be found. The desert cats feed on deer, rodents, rabbits and lizards. Find out Everything about this Hybrid, Differences Between Deer, Elk, Moose and Reindeer, What Does It Mean When a Cat Shows Up at My Door, The 10 Most Solitary Animals in the World, Native Animals of the Serengeti: Wildlife and Habitat. Its pods are gathered when green and cooked as a vegetable. For ages desert has always attracted travellers because of its uniqueness. 2013. ‘Ethnomedicinal Plants of Jodhpur District, Rajasthan Used in Herbal and Folk Remedies,’ Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research (IJPBR) 1.4: 71–75. Weighing around 7 pounds of any tree in a Bishnoi village’ ( Thapar 1997:179 ) Desert of Rajasthan, scientifically. Desert breeze blows incessantly, and snakes, camels belonging to a pastoral herding community in times crop. Nagarparkar taluka the other Bishnois than … Thar Desert map, has its., which are the silvery lines of soft white bui, the qualitative composition, density,,. And cough, and they also have a white circle around their eyes black... By Carnivora, covering 44,000 square kilometers, are the biggest genus of lizards in the Thar Desert Rajasthan! They include geckos and fauna of thar desert lizards, which are home to several and... 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