With the increase in professional jobs, Houston has become a destination for many college-educated persons, most recently including African Americans in a reverse Great Migration from northern areas. [255], The city has hosted several major professional and college sporting events, including the annual Houston Open golf tournament. [133][137] An estimated 42.9% of Houstonians owned housing units with an average of 2.67 persons per household. The racial makeup of the city was 71% White, 1.2% African American, 0.80% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 27.74% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. There, visitors can see the largest collection of space artifacts in the southwestern United States—more than 400 in total—including flown spacecraft and the largest collection of moon rocks on public display. [25], Sections of South Houston west of Old Galveston Road are served by South Houston Intermediate School (South Houston, Grades 7-8). [133] The largest Hispanic or Latin American ethnic groups in the city were Mexican Americans (31.6%), Puerto Ricans (0.8%), and Cuban Americans (0.8%) in 2018. [294][295], The University of Houston–Downtown, located in Downtown, is the second-largest institution of higher education in Houston. … C.S. Houston is recognized worldwide for its energy industry—particularly for oil and natural gas—as well as for biomedical research and aeronautics. Therefore, Houston exercises transportation planning authority over a 2,000-square-mile (5,200 km2) area over five counties, many times larger than its corporate area. [259][260] The city's elected officials are the mayor, city controller and 16 members of the Houston City Council. Chris Brown is the city controller, serving his first term as of January 2016[update]. Houston's median gross rent from 2014-2018 was $990. Houston Forward Times is one of the largest black-owned newspapers in the metropolitan area and owned by Forward Times Publishing Company. Houston hosts the annual Houston College Classic baseball tournament every February, and the Texas Kickoff and Bowl in September and December, respectively.[256]. By 1930, Houston had become Texas's most populous city and Harris County the most populous county. The per capita income for the city was $15,611. This was the largest urban evacuation in the history of the United States. [248] The Houston Texans are a National Football League expansion team formed in 2002. [235][236] Notable facilities include The Museum of Fine Arts, the Houston Museum of Natural Science, the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, the Station Museum of Contemporary Art, the Holocaust Museum Houston, the Children's Museum of Houston, and the Houston Zoo.[237][238][239]. [272] In 2010, the city's murder rate (per capita rate of 11.8 murders per 100,000 population) was ranked sixth among U.S. cities with a population of over 750,000 (behind New York City, Chicago, Detroit, Dallas, and Philadelphia) according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. [174] The most prominent Eastern and Oriental Orthodox jurisdictions are the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America,[175] the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of North America,[176] the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria,[177] and Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The Rice University Kinder Institute for Urban Research, a think tank, has described Greater Houston as "one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse metropolitan areas in the country". The city of Houston has a strong mayoral form of municipal government. [185] Major technology and software companies within Greater Houston include Cybersoft, Houston Wire & Cable, and HostGator. [167] Other Christian groups including Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Christianity, and non-Christian religions did not grow for much of the city's history because immigration was predominantly from Western Europe (which at the time was dominated by Western Christianity and favored by the quotas in federal immigration law). The South Texas campus is located in bustling downtown Houston, within walking distance of local and federal courthouses, law firms, and some of the nation’s top corporate offices. It is where one of the first—and still the largest—air emergency service, Life Flight, was created, and an inter-institutional transplant program was developed. [80] The six original wards of Houston are the progenitors of the 11 modern-day geographically-oriented Houston City Council districts, though the city abandoned the ward system in 1905 in favor of a commission government, and, later, the existing mayor–council government. The Museum District's cultural institutions and exhibits attract more than 7 million visitors a year. [83][84] Regulations include mandatory lot size for single-family houses and requirements that parking be available to tenants and customers. Hurricane Harvey damaged hundreds of thousands of homes and dumped trillions of gallons of water into the city. [323] The Major Thoroughfare and Freeway Plan, updated annually, establishes the city's street hierarchy, identifies roadways in need of widening, and proposes new roadways in unserved areas. The establishment of the Houston Ship Channel resulted in the establishment of manufacturing industries inland, including in South Houston. South Houston is adjacent to Pasadena, two miles southeast of the intersection of Interstate Highway 45 and State Highway 3, in southeastern Harris County. [331] A daily Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach connects Houston with Amtrak's Chicago–San Antonio Texas Eagle at Longview. The population was 16,983 at the 2010 census. [213] The city is home to the nation's third-largest concentration of consular offices, representing 92 countries. About 24% of the population was below the poverty line, including 25.8% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. They provide patient and preventive care, research, education, and local, national, and international community well-being. [27], In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin. Highways that follow the cardinal convention include U.S. Route 290 (Northwest Freeway), Interstate 45 north of Downtown (North Freeway), Interstate 10 east of Downtown (East Freeway), Texas State Highway 288 (South Freeway), and Interstate 69 south of Downtown (Southwest Freeway). The population was 16,983 at the 2010 census. The Grand Prix of Houston, an annual auto race on the IndyCar Series circuit was held on a 1.7-mile temporary street circuit in NRG Park. After five years, 80.5% of graduates are still living and working in the region. The Rio Grande serves as the western and southern boundaries and separates Texas from Mexico. [113] Overall, there have been more casualties and property loss from floods in Houston than in any other locality in the United States. The city controller is elected independently of the mayor and council. In 1948, the city annexed several unincorporated areas, more than doubling its size. The median income for a household in the city was $44,607 [in 2017 dollars]. The population was 15,833 at the 2000 census. Four distinct state universities are located in Houston. The rear of South Texas College of Law, with the law library enclosed in glass South Texas College of Law Houston is a private law school in Houston, Texas. A home rule city and Harris County 2,100,263 residents M University 's nursing school is located in nation. Houston 's Jewish community, estimated at 47,000 in 2001, has made. 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