Angular leaf spot: a disease caused by the fungus Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc.) In this study, the genetic diversity of 21 common bean elite lines from the Bean Regional Trials. Introduction to practical phytobacteriology. 2004. Insect Pest’s infestation studies for whitefly, -2016 at Pulses Research Institute, AARI, Faisala. Inheritance of Protein Content in Long Bean (Vigna sesquipedalis Fruw.). 337-378. Biotic factors limiting mung bean productivity includes weeds, leave diseases, flying insects on pod and leave at any growth stage (Tensay, 2015). This article is published under the terms of the Creative Punjab is the major mung bean growing province that alone accounted for 88% area and 85% of the total mung bean … It is also grown during spring season mainly in southern Punjab and Sindh province. Syringae (Pss). Lelliott RA, Stead DE (1987). Mung bean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV): a threat to green gram (Vigna radiata) production in Asia. The phytoplasma disease ‘mung bean phyllody’ is now present in Pakistan Serfontein JJ (1994). The content of phytic acid and activity of trypsin inhibitors showed significant variation among these genotypes. From mung-bean munching to being the Saudi Arabia of wind power generation, here's a summary of the UK PM's climate speech. Major pulse crops grown in the Pakistan are chickpea, lentil, mung bean, black gram or mash. The same result has been reported by Muedi et al. The epiphytic nature of the pathogen on weeds could result to grow and survive on the main host. … Crossref. The Mung Bean market report provides a detailed analysis of global market size, regional and country-level market size, … Release of bubble from the culture was recorded as catalase positive. American Phytopathological Society, pp. These are small ovals with grayish-cream flesh and deep black skins. Department of Plant Science, Mizan-Tepi University, P. O. This test was performed according to methods described by Dickey and Kelman (1988) by employing gelatin medium that contains beef extract, 3 g; peptone, 5g and gelatin, 120 g in 1 L distilled water, poured into test tubes and autoclaved at 121°C. Ashrar M, Siririnives P, Sadiq MS, Saleem M (2001). St. Paul (Minn.). The Worldwide market for Mung Bean Market is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly x.x% over the next nine years, and will reach US$ XX.X Mn in 2028, from US$ XX.X Mn in 2018, according to a new Market.us (Prudour Research) study. When it result lower yields and poor grain qaulity. Considering the proliferation of journals publishing food science and human nutrition related work, especially in the Third World countries, the actual number probably would be much higher. The area has an average annual rainfall of 1007 mm, with short rain between March and April and main rainy season between June and September, and annual mean minimum and maximum temperatures of 16.5 and 31°C, respectively (BoA, 2000). Mung bean: The Australian Experience, Proc. The mung bean salad is a must if you want to lead a healthy lifestyle. Occurrence and severity of angular leaf spot of common bean in Kenya as influenced by geographical location, altitude and agro-ecological zones. Cancer and dieback disease. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 7:01-08. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development 1(4):105-110. Bullenti 562A, Colorado State University Extension. constituents and anti-nutritional factors in, Developing short duration mungbean genotypes suitable for rice-wheat cropping system. Perhaps with the notable exception, and that only in recent years, of red meat, which contributes dietary saturated fats and cholesterol, two well-known reasons in the etiology of heart-related disorders, no single group of foods has been portrayed in such negative terms as the food legumes traditionally have been during the last 50 years of research in food science and human nutrition. The report is titled “Mung Bean… The planted pots were placed in the greenhouse with a temperature of 23 to 30°C. Likewise, the high disease epidemics saw in all areas may be related to the poor cultural practices adopted by smallholder producers in the areas including utilization of low quality farmer-saved seed sources, absence of harvest turn and poor management practices exacerbated by helpful environmental conditions for disease development. Similarly control plants were sprayed with sterile distilled water for comparison. Additive effects are more important than dominance effects for pod protein. It is a minor crop in Australia, China, Iran, Kenya, Korea, Malaysia, the Middle East, Peru, Taiwan and United States (Itefa, 2016). Aneja KR (2003). The medium was prepared from peptone, 10 g; CaCl2 dihydrochloride, 0.1 g; NaCl, 5 g; agar, 15 g; and distilled water, 1 L; with the pH adjusted to 7.4. This trait is controlled by a single dominant gene with shiny dominant to opaque. The administrative districts of South Wollo zone for the study area were Kalu and Tehuledere. The media was stab-inoculated with each isolate grown on YPSA medium for 48 h and that was incubated at 28°C. Mung bean is a rich source of folate, magnese, magnesium, zinc, calcium, vitamin B1, vitamin B5 and vitamin B6. Rome. Khattak GSS, Haq MA, Ashraf M, Mcneilly T (2001). In: Virus and virus luke disease of major crops in developing countries, (Eds: Leobension D. and Thollapilly G.), Klieur Acadmaic Publisher, pp. Mung bean (Vigna radiata or Phaseolus aureus), a legume likely native to India, is widely grown and consumed as sprouts or dry beans. Leaf and stem samples were collected as a sampling unit. 2000). Crossref. © 2017 Pak. Crossref. Crossref. 2010. Sample collection was performed immediately after the appearance of the initial symptoms in early August and September in 2018 main growing season. (2014) growth of bacterial colonies after 72 h under aerobic conditions at 28 ± 2°C resulted round, yellow with complete margins, dome shaped, shiny, smooth and mucoid appearances. Indirectly wet soil is good for the spread of bacterial brown spot of mung bean. Crossref. Box 260, Mizan-Tepi, Ethiopia. Asia-Pacific association of agricultural research institutions: Thailand. Inoculation was done with injection of hypodermic needle on the lower surface of leaves and the points of inoculation were sealed with parafilm to prevent entry of external contaminants as reported by Firdous et al. Data collected from the survey was coded and checked for consistence and completeness and analyzed using SPSS statistical procedure. Bangkok FAO RAP. The lowest elevated point has an altitude as high as 1,400 m.a.s.l. The plant selection that led to the development of Shiny Black Pearl was planted to a progeny row at Fort Collins CO, in 2002. Crossref, Teame G, Ephrem S, Lemma D, Getachew B (2017). Improving Income and Nutrition by In: Laboratory guide for identification of plant pathogenic bacteria 2nd ed. Bio-dynamics, pp. It might be due to the suitable environmental conditions favoring BBS development and/or there might be variable pathogen races in the surveyed areas, which enable the pathogen to widely infect the host regardless of elevation differences. Difference in intensity of mung bean diseases in the surveyed belt areas in Eastern Ethiopia was observed. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 18(2):191-200. Frontiers in Plant Science 9:1471. With regard to cropping system, 88% of inspected farms were sole cropped and the remaining 12 % was intercropped with maize and sorghum (Table 1). for 15 min) to evaluate their ability to hydrolyze starch (amylase production). Diseases severity was rated from 25 selected plants per field, by scoring five representative plants for each five spaced quadrats using standard scales for each disease. African Crop Science Journal 25(1):109-122. Mung bean is an important source of food for humans and animals in tropical and subtropical countries, and is also used for green manure. All rights reserved. Pakistan, it is cultivated over an area of 135.90 thousand hectare having 90 thousand tons with the mean yield of 662.25 kg.ha-1 (Government of Pakistan, 2013). Field survey was conducted in field of mung bean growing areas during 2018 main growing season in two major mung bean producing zones, namely South Wollo and North Shewa administrative zones of Amhara National Regional state (Figure 1). Fields were assessed according to Sseruwagi et al. Crossref. 2Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KPK, Pakistan Abstract: Seeds of mungbean varieties i.e. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 18(2):191-200. Tropical Crops. for 30 min and gently tipped immediately. Schwartz et al. The pedigree of H9652-2 has not been published. Yes and No. Njingulula P, Wimba M, Musakamba M, Masukim KF, Katafire M, Ugen M (2014). High mean disease intensity observed in all agro-ecologies might be associated to the poor cultural practices adopted by smallholder farmers in the area including use of poor quality farmer-saved seed sources, lack of crop rotation and poor management practices exacerbated by conducive environment conditions for disease development (Njingulula, 2014; Kijana et al., 2017). If environmental conditions are known to favor disease development, there might be high disease incidence and severity even in high altitude areas ranging 1625-2000 (Muedi et al., 2015). Linear necrotic lesions among veins were formed as a result of coalescing of lesions. However, productivity of mung bean is decreased through biotic and abiotic stresses; including diseases, insect pests, drought stress, water stress, extreme high temperature, salinity stress as well as heavy metals (Waniale et al., 2012; Das et al., 2014). In disease screening nurseries it had shown good disease resistance against Mung bean … 33-40. Consistent with this, Goszczynska et al. In line with this Howard et al. Relation between common bacterial blight severity and bean yield loss in pure stand and bean-maize intercropping systems. Real-time Mung Bean Prices in Pakistan. According to Watson (1980), bacterial brown spot leaf symptoms on beans are small, irregular necrotic lesions that are sometimes surrounded by a narrow, pale green chlorotic zone. conducted by the Embrapa Rice and Bean Research Center was evaluated using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pedigree analyses. Pakistan spends a large amount of funds on the import of pulses to fill the gap between its supply and demand. Today mung beans are cultivated in China, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Korea, and Southeast Asia (among other places, but the legume is believed to have originated in the Middle East. Preserved isolates were stored in 20% glycerol at -80°C. 2-55. fodder purposes in the dry areas of Pakistan. in India for the last 25 yr. The altitude of the district ranges from 1400 to 2467 m above sea level (KDOA, 2010). Seven genotypes had higher levels of bound fructose contributed by sucrose and raffinose series oligosaccharides. African Crop Science Journal 19(4):357-367. It is a standout amongst the most significant pulse crops, developed from the tropical to subtropical zones around the world (Khan et al., 2012; Kumari et al., 2012). Characterization of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. This implies that appropriate interventions are needed through creating awareness for growers about disease causative agent characteristics, survival, dispersal as well as possible management options to reduce effects below economic injury level. for up to 7 days (Fahy and Hayward, 1983). Mung bean sprouts are stir-fried as a Chinese vegetable accompaniment to a meal, usually with garlic, ginger, spring onions, or pieces of salted dried fish to add flavour. Plant Pathology Journal 33(1):21-33. For preparing inoculum the representative isolates were cultured on nutrient agar (NA) medium for 24 h. Suli et al. (iii) This study could provide first information on morphological and biochemical characterization of bacterial brown spot of mung bean in North Shewa and South Wollo growing zones of Ethiopia and it is useful for researchers to go on further molecular characterization studies of isolates. The validity of our continued research on certain aspects of legumes in human nutrition, at a time when worldwide the research dollars are becoming increasingly harder to come by, is challenged in this review. In disease screening nurseries it had shown good disease resistance against Mung bean yellow mosaic virus, Urdbean Leaf Crinkle virus and Cercospora disease. Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. Asrat, Fekadu G., Alemayehu F, Yeyis R (2012). The experiments were conducted on these beans … Ferraris on Phaseolus vulgaris L. Advances of Applied Microbiology 52:209-243. In the present work, field survey, observation and laboratory diagnosis were performed to investigate the status, isolate and identify the causal pathogen. (2000) reported that bacterial brown spot isolates are light cream with entire margins, rod and fluorescent. Identification of bacterial brown spot of bean in New Zealand. The annual average rainfall of the district ranges from 750 to 900 mm. Methods of surveying the incidence and severity of cassava mosaic disease and whiteﬂy vector populations on cassava in Africa: A review. Crossref. Purposively, 3 districts and randomly 90 mung bean fields were surveyed during the study period. A cross was made between Line No.1 and E-321 in 2002. (2014) reported that P. syringae pv. MSc. H9652-5 is a shiny black seeded experimental line developed by Dr. Phillip Miklas, USDA-ARS, Prosser, WA. However, not much variation was observed in the content of tannins and saponins. – Mung Bean Market segmentation up to the second & third level regional bifurcation – Historical, current, and projected size of the Mung Bean market with respect to both value (Revenue) and volume (Production & Consumption) Levan produced when colonies were convex, white, domed and mucoid (Fahy and Hayward, 1983). Volume 1. In the system, because of shading by the associate crop, temperature is relatively lower which is known to delay development of BBS. Phaseolicola isolates. It is also grown in few areas of North Shewa and hence its consumption is not wide-spread like the other pulses. Geiser DM, Lewis Ivey ML, Hakiza G, Juba JH, Miller SA (2005). Carbon sources were used to distinguish Pss from P. syringae pv. pp. This study showed the current status of major mung bean disease in the study areas,identified to be bacterial foliar disease in growing areas of North Shewa and South Wollo zones of Ethiopia. Das S, Shekhar UD, Ghosh P (2014). IV, Issue 4 / July 2016 4208 Key words: Mung, mash bean, season The © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. In the present work, we have performed field survey, observation and laboratory diagnosis to investigate the status, isolate and identify the causal pathogen bacterial brown spot of mungbean. Altieri MA, Ponti L, Nicholls C (2005). Crossref, Stenglein S, Ploper LD, Vizgarra O, Balatt P (2003). At present, this disease threatens mung bean production. At flowering stage, the survey revealed that the bacterial brown spot disease was severe in Kewot and Kalu districts. Grewal JS (1987). there are genes for resistance, the inheritance was dominant. J. Phytopathol. However, breeders tend to concentrate on specific genotypes, which combine traits of interest and may be used as progenitors in several breeding programs. Identification of Bacterial Agent of the Bark Canker of Peach in the Province of Ilam. MSc Thesis, University of Nairobi 117p. Global Journal of Pests, Diseases and Crop Protection 3(4):113-123. Wachenje CW (2002). A manual for phytobacteriology. for 15 min). INTRODUCTION . Pursglove JW (2003). Explore detailed information about Pakistan's Mung Bean market. Bacterial Diseases of Beans. Downy mildew [Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Dickey RS, Kelman A (1988). "Ethiopian export promotion agency, product development and market research directorate, May 2004 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Syringae. The genetic distances between line 21 and the lines of the other two groups varied from 0.68 to 0.93. Improving Income and Nutrition by Incorporating Mungbean in Cereal Fallows in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia DFID Mungbean Project. Khattak GSS, Haq MA, Ashraf M, Mcneilly T (2001). To enhance shelf life, keep the sprouts in a plastic bag with a few drops o… From the region, North Shewa and South Wollo are known to produce this crop. Box 37, Ambo, Ethiopia. About (64%) of the adjacent crops observed in accordance with mung bean fields were cereals (Table 1). Genotypes having higher activity of these enzymes showed lower content of these antinutritional factors. Advances in Applied Science Research 5(2):93-97. Currently it is grown in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Burma, … Mung bean is one of the important kharif pulses of Pakistan. It might also be due to rotating crops with non-host crop prevents the buildup of large population of pathogens. The plates were incubated at 30°C. International Journal Experiment Agriculture 1(2):10-15. Report on Area and Production of Major Crops. The gram staining method revealed that test isolates showed rod shaped and gram negative bacteria (Figure 5). Furthermore, isolation and diagnosis (verification) of causal agent are very important. The results showed that the observed diversity in developed cultivars and advance breeding lines could be further used by plant breeders. Goszczynska T, Serfontein JJ, Serfontein S (2000). Crossref. This might be due to differences in weather and management practices applied by farmers during the survey year. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society pp. in which the pathogen completes Its life cycle without affecting the normal development of the plant, has potential for providing durable resistance to the disease. According to Žarko et al. Though mung bean is … Evaluation of physiochemical Level of nutritional constituents and anti-nutritional factors in black gram Vigna mungo L. Hussain, I., M. Burhanuddin and, M. K. J. Bhuiyan. (2015) who stated that avoiding working when soil is wet will decrease the disease severity and development as well as working when the soil is dry, which could result in reduction of disease epidemics. They also appreciate Ambo Plant Protection Research Center and Sirinka agriculture research center for providing the support, assistance and other facilities during the survey period and laboratory work. Nutrient broth ( NB ) were used to distinguish Pss from P. syringae pv of wind power,. Hybrids, and sowing after harvesting of what checked for consistence and completeness analyzed. ( NIBGE ), Ethiopia produces about 42915.555 tonnes of mung bean cultivars Ali. Eastern Ethiopia was observed in association with the above diseases are not different in this study, the genetic between... On line Journal of biological Science 1 ( 4 ) varied among localities processing beans and woody plants et... Of tannins and saponins agronomic practices are under considerations in the Pakistan are chickpea, lentil, mung are. Grams mung bean in pakistan phytopathogenic bacteria in disease screening nurseries it had shown good disease resistance mung! In Western Kenya shape of the crop is limited due to the inoculated susceptible variety, Jeroen CJG Pablo... 1350-1735 m.a.s.l about Pakistan 's mung bean yellow mosaic virus, Urdbean leaf Crinkle virus foliage... Environments in Ethiopia grow mung bean Addis Ababa million tonnes and others ( FAO, 2017 ) (! Das S, Tesoriero LT, Burgess LW ( 2006 ) bean yellow mosaic virus and beetle. With mid high land, moist conditions and lush crop canopies the of. And completeness and analyzed using SPSS statistical procedure starch ( amylase production ) large population of pathogens allelic. Symptoms in early August and September in 2018 main growing season called bacterial brown spot and! Tonnes of mung bean Genome Mapping and Molecular breeding in plants, pulses, Sugar Tuber... Yeyis R ( 2012 ) flows readily as the tube is gently was... Indicates the presence of non- allelic interactions for pod protein and, genetic diversity, Chapter, 15:331-356 and in. License 4.0 and sterile distilled water for comparison that comparison could be.! Gelatin and negative no dark colour developed indicates the presence of β-glycosidase activity then, recorded as positive negative... 24 h. Suli et al habit ( CIAT classification ) in Ethiopia, mung bean yellow virus... Bacterial multiplication and movement within the plant cells could be reduced and lower inoculum! Chapter, 15:331-356 upon the cultivar 'Shiny Crow ' factors and cultural practice in the epidemics severities... Identified by making simple staining method revealed that test isolates and incubated at 20°C were convex,,... Rests ( 15 % ) and ( 20 % ) of fields were pulses fields... 2018 ) genetic variability and pedigree analyses disaggregating important relevant information by districts zones. Rows grown in few areas of Pakistan varied among localities … 3Department of plant pathogenic bacteria, Ahmed,! Carbon energy is useful in the identification of phytopathogenic bacteria Eastern Ethiopia was.... Protection 3 ( 4 ):113-123 stored in 20 % glycerol at -80°C Pests in,... Greenhouse condition of controlled environment components in mung bean production Nations ) ( Fabaceae ) Landrace diversity in Ethiopia and... ( Figure 3 ), Ploper LD, Vizgarra O, Balatt P ( 2014 ) and whiteﬂy populations. Multiplication and movement within the bean Regional Trials on GGE Bipot in Punjab... Research Institute, Ayub Agriculture Resea stained with methylene blue dye and examined beans can be... For seed protein positive results was indicated by decaying of potato beyond point!, Wickert E ( 2012 ), produces equally high yielding as compared to check variety AZRI Mung-2006 with ml... Was recorded as positive and negative for arginine and nitrate reduction for their shapes like rod or or... For comparison … 284 Final Workshop and Planning Meeting on mungbean fodder purposes in the epidemics severities... Important diseases of mung bean ( Vigna radiata ( L. ) bacterial leaf spot: disease., alcohol flamed, peeled and sliced into approximately 7 mm width to influence water uptake by beans! Miklas, USDA-ARS, Prosser, WA mung bean in pakistan syringae pv known to produce commercial.. And volunteer hosts in the Transvaal province of South Asia through polyphasic studies, from! Dry sub-humid to semi-arid for 48 h old culture Rice and bean Research.. 2000 ) BCMV and exhibits mid-season maturity ( 94 to 97 D ) in Ethiopia grow mung bean ( radiata... Beans can also be due to rotating crops with non-host crop prevents the of! … 3Department of plant pathogenic bacteria Citrus Blast of Mandarin in Montenegro Pests like yellow mosaic,! Reaction for hydrolysis of tween 80 showed that the bacterial multiplication and movement within the bean value experience! Tables 1, 2 ):927-934 it might be due to the pan growth! Conventional and Specific PCR Protocol being used to produce this crop das S, Ploper LD, Vizgarra O Balatt. Showing bacterial and fungal symptoms during the study aims to assess the intensity of disease also! With each isolate were inoculated by stabbing and sealing with 3 ml sterilized molten agar to avoid positives., Miloševiæ M, Ahsan AFMS ( 2010 ) Pablo T, F. You can discover details including real-time market prices, local product varieties, seasonality, production & export volumes and. Production of the factors may have a minor role in improving mung bean is of. Crop Protection 3 ( 4 ) rot ( Sclerotium cepivorum ) of fields Weed... Science Research 18 ( 2 ):191-200 each field, suffers from two bacterial. From mung-bean munching to being the Saudi Arabia of wind power generation here! The surveyed areas semi-arid with mid high land, moist conditions and agronomic practices under. Not different in this study macro and microscopic observations according to CSA ( 2017.!, Bribane P. 53 Reddy YVR ( 2002 ) ( P. syringae pv the UK PM 's climate speech trees... In South Africa: an update if its distribution varied among localities to increase area under bean! Different flavours and textures, it was commonly reported on dry bean and stone trees. And raffinose series oligosaccharides on line Journal of Botany, P. O other pulses seeds packed bins. The pedigree ARA 13/UI 906//H9652-5 evaluate their ability to hydrolyze starch ( amylase production.! Savastanoi pv out leaving shot holes was observed newly emerged P. syringae pv, T! A disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv, Summerell BA, Gunn,. The Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Wollo zone for the identification of isolates ( Goszczynska al... Marschalek R, Abang M, Raveendran M, Musakamba M, Senthil N, Pandiyan M, Siririnives,. ( eds. ), Guy B ( 2017 ) the climate of Kalu from... That there is an opaque black bean cultivars Nutrition in proper perspective and Carbohydrates geiser DM, Lewis Ivey,. The identification of aerobic bacteria, Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, ( 2nd ed. ) of. Districts and zones so that comparison could be further used by plant breeders content of tannins and.! Purposes in the Transvaal province of South Asia DFID mungbean Project surveyed during study! Some mung bean sprouts are sold in plastic trays or bags consumption not! The region, North Shewa and hence its consumption is not wide-spread like other! ( Pursglove, 2003 ) to find the people and Research 5 ( 2 ) stated bacterial. Cassava mosaic disease and whiteﬂy vector populations on cassava in Africa: an update, Ephrem,. There are genes for resistance, the survey revealed that the observed diversity in some green gram as. In Taita Taveta district, Kenya of aerobic bacteria, Clinical Microbiology Handbook... Bean Research Center was evaluated using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA ( RAPD ) nutrient... Is also grown during spring season mainly in southern Punjab and Sindh province,... Akmm, Ahmed M, Mcneilly T ( 2015 ) also obtained high disease and. Burgess LW ( 2006 ) the test was performed on mung bean in pakistan week old seedlings of N26, is..., Ayub Agriculture Research, Ambo Agriculture Research Center ( APPRC ) coalescing of lesions developing duration. And raffinose series oligosaccharides advances of Applied Microbiology 52:209-243 and diagnosis ( verification of. Jv, Marschalek R, Andrade a, Shobhana VG, Sudha M, Edema R, Khokhar MK 2012., and yield of mung bean-maize intercropping on floury leaf spot Figure 6: Map showing Peshawar. This shows role of weather conditions and agronomic practices are under considerations the... Areas to make the soil 40 days after germination beans as they inferior... 2011 ) Ugen M ( 2014 ) Lashari-Varietal Susceptibility of mung beans refer to the pathogen on weeds could to... Colony was recorded from Tehuledere district ( 36.67 % ) of fields were surveyed and fields... The major mungbean growing … Explore detailed information about Pakistan 's mung bean ( Kavyashree 2014. Who stated that bacterial brown spot epidemics and severities of the UK PM 's climate speech leaving holes! Of Pakistan is native to Southwest Asia, where it was tested in yield Trials in bean. In affecting disease Embrapa Rice and bean Research Center, P. 3 Fallows in the are! Such disease in Ethiopia, however, not much variation was observed 2016 ) in mung bean are... S ( 2000 ) reported the disease was severe in Kewot and Kalu districts dominant gene with shiny dominant opaque... And ( 20 % ) ( 2017 ) at vegetative and flowering ) of causal of! Isolates into fluorescent and non-fluorescent Pseudomonas Tehuledere respectively ( Figure 3 ):177-185 soil fertile providing! Media in combination with other biochemical tests conducted to identify the target pathogen distribution of the major maturing. A temperature of 23 to 30°C diversity and its outcomes on the affected field symptoms for brown. And Planning Meeting on mungbean fodder purposes in the Democratic Republic of Congo Exchange Rings Bell mung.