A full set of armor and weapons could be very heavy and weigh well over 60 pounds. Written by Josho Brouwers on 25 November 2015. Swords of the Ancient World Beginning roughly with Ancient Greece and ending with the fall of the western Roman empire in AD 476, this category of European swords deals mostly with the Romans and their various enemies including the Greeks, the Celts or Gauls, the Dacians, and early Germanic tribes. Initially, the Mycenaeans had a fondness for long, thin, and relatively fragile rapier-like swords, but over time they started to use ever shorter and stouter blades, which began to resemble dirks more than anything else and were probably all used for thrusting (see also the picture above; source). And on the advice of Marek Vercik, I will add some less accessible books for those who really want to delve deeper. Get the best deals for ancient greek sword at eBay.com. You can clearly see the straight cross guard that easily distinguishes this type of sword from the Naue II-type: Finally, there is the famous curved sword, often referred to as either kopis or machaira. The shield alone could weigh 30 pounds. His sword is in in its scabbard, suspended from the shoulders using a baldric. Greek Swords, Daggers, Helmets, Weapons and more. A lot of the longer blades of the Mycenaean era tend to show signs of frequent repairs, especially around the area of the hilt, where they had a tendency to break or split. Our work here is made possible thanks in part to the generous support of our Patreon backers. The pommel tends to be simple and is often round, squarish, or squat. The tang of the Greek sword basically matches the outline of the hilt. You have JavaScript disabled. The scabbard is wood overlaid in leather and finished with antiqued copper fittings. Some excavations have also yielded large numbers of weapons. This article is part of the series: Hoplites and phalanxes. With a … If you enjoy what we do, please consider becoming a patron. wounded from the field. The term kopis (from Ancient Greek κοπίς, plural kopides from κόπτω - koptō, "to cut, to strike"; alternatively a derivation from the Ancient Egyptian term khopesh for a cutting sword has been postulated) in Ancient Greece could describe a heavy knife with a forward-curving blade, primarily used as a tool for cutting meat, for slaughter and animal sacrifice, or refer to a single edged cutting or 'cut and … These were around 6 – 8 feet long and often made out of wooden shafts, sharp iron heads, and bronze butt. Actaeon holding a xiphos.. Copyright © 2020 Ancient World Magazine and/or individual contributors. Greek swords-Ancient Greeks used makhaira, xiphos and kopis swords. It was generally hung from a baldricunder the left arm. Learn more or subscribe below. Spartan Hoplite Infantry Slashing Sword (... Spartan Infantry Officer's Sword (Xiphos). 560 BC. Hoplites also carried and used swords in battle. You’ll have to go to an academic library to read these titles. The most well-known type, a short two-sided sword used by hoplites as a secondary weapon. 500–490 BC, that depicts the departure of a warrior. Ancient Macedonian sword as seen in the 2004 movie "Alexander". The shield was considered the most important part of a soldier's armor. Joyeuse: The Legendary Sword of Charlemagne . This version is based on … Spartan Hoplon Shield. Felsch (2007). He donned a helmet, breastplate and greaves and carried a short sword at his waist. $81.00. He He donned a helmet, breastplate and greaves and carried a short sword at his waist. The hilt is bronze-finished steel interlaced with layers of bone. This website might not work correctly. 1600 - 1000 BC. These swords were often relatively short, probably around 60cm or so in length. It was a secondary battlefield weapon for the Greek armies after the dory or javelin. front, and extended far leftward to protect his neighbor's right side. It depicts a Greek (Athenian?) 1-3: Xiphos, fig. Naue II-type swords are found in graves of the Early Iron Age and were also dedicated at sanctuaries. His PhD thesis was published in book form as Henchmen of Ares: Warriors and Warfare in Early Greece (2013). Here is an example of a Naue II-type sword on an Attic black-figure tondo, dated ca. In art, it is often depicted overhead to emphasize, according to some scholars, the fact that it was used for cutting down enemies. Most soldiers carried a long spear called a doru and a short sword called a xiphos. During the Late Bronze Age, the Mycenaeans used a large variety of swords. Thomas Rover ’16 is a student of warfare, specifically in ancient Greece, but philosophically he is a pacifist. A Spartan hoplite (footsoldier) wielded a pike of seven and a half to nine feet in length, which he handled more skillfully than his opponent did his own weapon of lesser stature. Gladiators will also find a selection of Roman gladii and spears. 111–135. Analytical cookies help us to better craft the user experience based on your page view experiences. The term kopis (from Greek κοπίς, plural kopides from κόπτω – koptō, "to cut, to strike"; alternatively a derivation from the Ancient Egyptian term khopesh for a cutting sword has been postulated ) in Ancient Greece could describe a heavy knife with a forward-curving blade, primarily used as a tool for cutting meat, for ritual slaughter and animal sacrifice, or refer to a single edged cutting or "cut and thrust" sword with a similarly shaped blade. The Greek examples always have a half-moon-shaped pommel at the end of the hilt. Later came early farmers and the civilizations of the Minoan and Mycenaean kings. 1000 BC at the latest, are quickly made in iron rather than bronze. The handles and the top and... Greek Hoplite sword from Campovalano, Italy, 6th-5th century BC . For the site of Kalapodi, check out Kalapodi II: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen im Heiligtum der Artemis und des Apollon von Hyampolis in der antiken Phokis, edited by Rainer C.S. the shield, breastplate, helmet and greaves, together with the sword and lance. The most common Greek sword has a leaf-shaped blade and straight cross guards. Ballista. It is sometimes referred to as a sabre and was, indeed, also used by Greek cavalrymen. The Archaic age begins with the Greeks settling in Corinth, Thebes and Athens all around 8th century B.C. hoplite about to strike down a Persian soldier. Modern scholars distinguish the makhaira from the kopis(an ancient term of similar meaning) based on whether the blade is forward curved (kopi… Depending on the sword type and era, Ancient Greek had various words to describe swords. The length is around 36 inches. Ancient World Magazine is created by academically-trained ancient historians and archaeologists. The ancient swords of the Greek Hoplites were made of roughly forged steel, with a waist-ed, leaf shaped double edged blade around 24" long. In period texts, μάχαιρα has a variety of meanings, and can refer to virtually any knife or sword (taking the meaning of today's Greek μαχαίρι), even a surgeon's scalpel, but in a martial context it frequently refers to a type of one-edged sword; a sword designed primarily to cut rather than thrust. Ancient Greek Bronze Museum Replica Of Sword CODE:1821 Dimensions: 31x8 cm or 12.24x3.16 in Weight: 700gr Material: BRONZE Color: MUSEUM OXIDIGATITION This is a handmade Museum Replica Of Sword made in Greece, from 100% bronze using the traditional “lost wax” technique. A look at ancient Greek swords, with particular reference to blades from the Archaic and Classical periods. The Greek Hoplite was a tough, effective citizen-soldier and was ferocious in defense of his home city. The xiphos is a double-edged, one-handed Iron Age straight shortsword used by the ancient Greeks. Greek Swords and Collectibles . If you want to read more about swords in ancient Greece, a good starting point – still, after all these years – is Anthony Snodgrass’s Arms and Armour of the Greeks (1967). Length: 7–9 ft (213 – 274 cm) Weight: 30 lb (13,6 kg) Configuration: Bronze … The Spartan phalanx was the most formidable sight on battlefields in the fifth century B.C . * Xiphos (ξίφος). Interesting Facts About the Soldiers and War of Ancient Greece. Ancient Swords by Marto Toledo Spain-Roman, Greek, Persian and Judaic swords for sale. Greek Swords & Spears. The Parazonium (= by the belt) was a dagger carried by Spartans at their belts. weapon of lesser stature. Member of the Hoplite Association UK reenactment group explaining the types of Ancient Greek swords used in the firth century BC. The xiphos is a double-edged, one-handed Iron Age straight shortsword used by the ancient Greeks. Let us know. 480 BC. After about ca. A Spartan hoplite Spears were 6 to 8 feet long and were made out of a sharp iron head, a wooden shaft, and a bronze butt at the other end which was used in case the iron head broke. Antique swords, fig. The sword of Joyeuse was used in countless coronation ceremonies, and is tied with ancient … Late in the thirteenth century BC, a new type of sword is introduced in the Aegean from Central Europe, the so-called Naue II-type sword or Griffzungenschwert (‘grip-tongue sword’), which tends to be around 50–70cm in length. Now, you can echo his powerful might by wielding a weapon like his own, the Black Greek Hoplite Sword. This seeming contradiction lies in a lifelong fascination with weaponry, swords in particular, accompanied by a rejection of violence as a means of conflict resolution. We have a great online selection at the lowest prices with Fast & Free shipping on many items! * Xyele (ξυήλη). The Hoplite sword was the sidearm of the heavily armed Greek foot soldier of the classical period - similar to the slightly shorter, more durable swords of their even more militant neighbors, the Spartans.. Both figures are equipped with curved, slashing swords: These last two types of swords would last into the Hellenistic period, with the kopis in particular proving popular in art, and the weapon of choice for cavalrymen. Greek & Roman Gladius, Swords and Weapons Greek and Spartan weaponry is a specialty offered at MuseumReplicas.com. An important reference work is I. Killian-Dirlmeier’s Die Schwerter von Griechenland, ausserhalb der Peloponnesos, Bulgarien, und Albanien (1993), but you will have to be able to read German, and it might not be easy to find. It features the blade which was very functional for the cavalry. Infantry was the dominant military arm in ancient Greece, and the Spartan infantry eclipsed all others. Superb Greek Period Sword Blade with very fine patina; Including a custom made stand; Good Condit... on Oct 27, 2019 Classical Greece, in the period of antiquity (5th Century to 4th Century BC), is considered the cradle of Western civilisation and many features from their sword designs has been replicated throughout history, from Roman Pugio to Pirate Cutlasses. A famous depiction of the kopis in action is provided by this Attic red-figure kylic dated to ca. Dependence upon a neighbor's shield encouraged each hoplite to keep rank. A leaf shaped blade such as the one on this sword, circa the 5th century BC, was quite popular throughout the ancient world. Our content is available for free, with no paywalls or subscription fees. We believe that rigorous research into the past should be widely available and easy to find. It was a battlefield weapon for the Greek armies. Greek swords went through three different ages, these were known as the Archaic age, the Classic age and the Hellenistic age. This shield protected its bearer's left side and Some examples have a flange along both sides of the grip area, but on others the tang is simply flat. Think we needed to include something else in this list? Ca. Quick View. Akrotiri wall frescoes from the island of Santorini, Minoan wall frescoes from the island of Crete, Macedonian Cavalry Slashing Sword (Kopis), Macedonian Infantry Bronze Sword (Xiphos), Spartan Dory Spearhead and Sauroter Buttcap. held so large a shield that it could be used as a stretcher to carry Tagged with Archaic, Bronze Age, Classical, Early Iron Age, Greeks, Mycenaeans, Warfare. 525 BC it becomes exceedingly rare in art and seems not have been used anymore by the vast majority of Greek warriors. Infantry was the dominant military arm in ancient Greece, and the Spartan infantry eclipsed all others. The wide variety of weapons used during these ancient times can be found throughout our website. Iphigenia (1977) This film was part of Michael Cacoyannis’s “Greek Tragedy” trilogy, along with The … During the Late Bronze Age, the Mycenaeans used a large variety of swords. The xiphos (Greek: (το) ξίφος) is a double-edged, single-hand sword used by the ancient Greeks. Achilles was the son of the mortal Peleus and the Nereid Thetis. All rights reserved. Decorative swords from ancient times. The ancient Greek sword was called Kopis. For Olympia, check out Die Angriffswaffen aus Olympia (Olympische Forschungen 29), by Holger Bätinger and published in 2001. See our cookie policy for further details on how to block cookies. The tang area was quite thin, around 2mm, abruptly thickening at the base of the blade. Instead, two different types of swords enter into use from the later sixth century BC onwards. These trained hoplites maneuvered in a formation, called a phalanx, of at least eight ranks deep. Ancient Greek, Greek Armour, The most common combat formation was the phalanx, a massed shield wall, which required heavy frontal armor and medium-ranged weapons such as spears. 4: Makhaira. Spear and Sword The spear, also known as the dory, was a very important weapon for an Ancient Greek warrior or hoplite. The sword of Joyeuse, which today sits in the Louvre Museum, is one of the most famous swords in history. The protective tip chape is bone with decorative plates of copper. The blade is made of... © 1999 - 2020 Hellenic-art.com Web Design GIM. It depicts a kneeling warrior and his sword is painted very clearly, though the shape is a little more stout than one would expect for a typical Naue II-type sword: The Naue II sword stayed in use until the late sixth century BC and is often easily recognizable in Greek art. After the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces, these swords become the predominant type of sword in use in the Aegean and with the start of the Iron Age, ca. Stay up-to-date with our monthly newsletter. This Greek Xiphos has a high carbon steel blade which was treated to have an antiqued bronze finish. The xiphos sometimes has a midrib, and is diamond or lenticular in cross-section. Warfare in Greece centered mainly on heavy infantrymen called the Greek … The latter is an important way to tell it apart from the Naue II-type sword, which has the hilt flow naturally into the blade and therefore lacks a cross guard. Here we feature ten striking swords from the ancient world. Initially, the Mycenaeans had a fondness for long, thin, and relatively fragile rapier-like swords, but over time they started to use ever shorter and stouter blades, … The Double Headed Axe was a lethally brutal instrument of destruction and battle. The bronze part found at the other end was often used for instances when the iron head breaks. Roman swords-Roman legions used short gladius sword and long spatha sword. The spear or dory, was a vital weapon for warriors or Hoplites in ancient Greece. However, in Greek art, most swords tend to be shown held overhead when in used in actual combat, including the ‘cut-and-thrust’ Naue II-type sword. This site uses cookies to store information on your computer. An interesting article is R. Jung and M. Mehofer’s “A sword of Naue II Type from Ugarit and the historical significance of Italian-type weaponry in the Eastern Mediterranean”, published in Aegean Archaeology 8 (2009), pp. It’s common for reenactors to refer to a sword of this type as xiphos, but that’s really the normal Greek word for sword. The early xiphos was a bronze sword, and in the classical period, would have been Here’s an Attic red-figure amphora, dated ca. Be sure to also visit our sister website Bad Ancient. See more ideas about greek warrior, sword, greek. Greek sword history. Homer mentions the makhaira, but as a domestic knife of no great size. A look at ancient Greek swords, with particular reference to blades from the Archaic and Classical periods. Sep 25, 2020 - Explore Dutch's board "ancient Greek warriors" on Pinterest. Josho Brouwers is a Mediterranean archaeologist with a focus on the Aegean/Greece. This was, in the words of Anthony Snodgrass, the first true ‘cut-and-thrust’ sword. Written by Josho Brouwers on 25 November 2015. (footsoldier) wielded a pike of seven and a half to nine feet in The xip… Tim Everson’s Warfare in Ancient Greece (2004) is more up-to-date, but follows Snodgrass closely, and emphasizes armour more than weapons. The history of Greece can be traced back to Stone Age hunters. Types of Greek swords. Ballista was a missile weapon used to launch a large projectile at a distant target. 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Thesis was published in 2001 each Hoplite to keep rank Archaic Age with... Around 2mm, abruptly thickening at the latest, are quickly made in rather! This was, indeed, also used by the vast majority of Greek warriors dependence upon a 's., was a lethally brutal instrument of destruction and battle shortsword used the. Enter into use from the Archaic Age begins with the sword and lance sword as seen the! Used a large variety of swords bronze butt can echo his powerful might by a. Its a replica of an ancient Greek swords went through three different ages, these were around 6 – feet... By Spartans at their belts, Persian and Judaic swords for sale armour of a II-type... Swords were often relatively short, probably around 60cm or so in length armour of a 's! Roman or medieval swords typically have ) the vast majority of Greek warriors Warfare, specifically in ancient.... Age begins with the sword to Charlemagne the great, King of the grip area, but a.