Owing to their colonial policies of economic exploitation, industry, trade commerce and agriculture languished and India became de-industrialized, impoverished and debt-ridden, while, William Bentinck himself admitted that by 1833-34 “The misery hardly finds a parallel in the history of commerce. Causes of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. • economic causes. Every lecture was as effective as a world class quality education system. Fig. In loading the rifle the sepoy before inserting the cartridge had to bite off its top. This Revolt was initiated by the sepoys of the company, so it has been commonly termed as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’. When it comes to choosing a coaching, there are many that can take away your breath, even in a literal sense they can. We focus on students of ISC and CBSE Class XI, Class XII and those preparing for competitive exams. It was the first great struggle of the Indians for freedom from British imperialism. There was a time when I wanted to drop out of science… After meeting sir, I LOOOVED studying science! Added to political and administrative distrust for the British East India Company, the economic policies of the British resulted in impoverishing all the segments of the Indian society except a handful of collaborators among the Indians. Thanks a ton Sir! The Revolt of 1857 laid the foundation for growth of Indian Nationalism in the second half of the 19th century. [0.3] The Rebellion of 1857 did not originate from a single cause, but from a complication of causes. Fig. The other rebellions had only regional interests of safeguarding one’s own kingdoms. The economic policies of the British were mainly exploitative and led to the severe destruction of the Indian economy. 17. The letter reads as follows: “As all India obeyed one government as in all parts of the country kept up constant communication with the other by means of the electric telegraph – and as the Railway system united the extremes of the Peninsula, it was necessary that there should be one religion also, and therefore that everyone should embrace Chris­tianity”. The native rulers were forced to disband their army who failed to obtain gainful employment elsewhere. The 1857 revolt sowed the seeds of Indian Nationalism. It was believed that the grease was made out of the fats of cows and pigs. At the time of joining the academy I was an average student and my mathematical / analytical skills were rusty and the institution helped me especially in areas I was wanting. The Revolt of 1857 was sparked because of the use of greased cartridges. One consequence of the mutiny was the establishment of direct British governance of India. If you think you are interested in understanding the concepts of Physics, Maths & especially Chemistry & improving your personality, then you must appreciate Sooraj Sir’s work who is himself an institution of learning. As a result of the British economic exploitation all classes of people, peasants, landlords, traders, industrialists, labourers and middle class of India were badly affected and it is no exaggeration to state that unlimited poverty enveloped the entire society and made India an underdeveloped country. This disaffection ultimately led to a mass uprising which we know today as the revolt of 1857. Avadh was annexed in 1856, on charge of mal-administration. Annexation of Awadh on the charge of Mis-Governance . The prominent leaders of 1857 revolt were: (i) The Rani of Jhansi who sacrificed her life fighting in June 1858. As a result, there was an increase in dissatisfaction and hatred against British rule among different sections of Indian society. In this article of Target General Studies, we have covered a very important topic – the Vellore Mutiny and the Revolt of 1857 in British India. 19. The British also possessed almost unlimited supplies of modern artillery to quickly suppress the 1857 Revolt. The British were rude and used abusive and insultive language. No single segment of population welcomed the rule of the British by 1857. A major cause of the outbreak of the revolt was the fear among the people that the British government was determined to destroy their religion and convert Indians to Christianity. For this work, we must make all efforts we can and use all power and all the authority in our hands”. I have been very fortunate to have him as a guide. Every coaching will just teach the technical concepts but there are hardly people like Sooraj Sir, who guide students on how to survive pressure, deal with expectations and still shine bright in this cut throat competition. All the notes, soft copies, links, helped me to reach where I am today. He was military reformer but his introduction of Enfield rifles and use of greased cartridges in them became the immediate cause of mutiny in 1857. Child marriage, infanticide and polygamy were not allowed. Some other reasons that led to the formation of the revolt of 1857 were the economical discrimination. Content Guidelines 2. The revolt of 1857 was initiated due to various factors which are stated below: Religious & Social Causes – racism or racial discrimination was believed to be a major reason for the revolt of 1857 wherein Indians were exploited and were kept away from mixing with Europeans. We had just been fooling around. This distrust hardened in due course as Indians were denied positions in all high civil and military jobs which were reserved for the Europeans and in particular to the British. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan admits that during the famines of 1837, many orphans became Christians. Tara Chand observes, “Each region became, after annexation, a scene of resistance and revolt, in which land holders and peasants were involved and in which the disbanded soldiers of the landlords, the ministers of religion and the dismissed dependents participated”, as a result of the British occupation by annexation. Added to the above griev­ances, there was professional discontentment among the sepoys for the following reasons: (i) The British paid a paltry amount of Rs 7 per month to an infantry sepoy, (ii) The British paid Rs 27 for a cavalry sawar from which he had to meet the cost of maintaining uniform, food and upkeep of the horse, and. There was a clash between the service conditions and religious practices of the upper caste sepoys due to the policies of the British. There were counseling sessions with Sooraj Sir, wherein he would sit for hours and listen to what I had to say, by the end of that session I would be full of motivation and inspiration, equipped with the ideal solution to my problem. India as a region has known foreign invaders more frequently than any other region in world history. But target academy really makes it happen. The Revolt of 1857, free of its genuine nature and character, was exceptional to the point that it appeared for a period that the Company’s Raj would disappear from India until the spring of 1858, when demand was restored again by the driving regal forces. They believed that the government was deliberately trying to destroy their religious and cultural identities. What stood out the most for me, was the fact that every time a student was in need, Sooraj Sir was ready to put in the extra mile, often going out of his way to help him. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. I just want to say I will always be grateful to you for always being a helping hand to me. Though the revolt was completely suppressed, it shook the British foundation in India. The Barons revolted and captured London, forcing King John to draw a negotiation. Under this spurious doctrine, he annexed Satara, Sambalpur, Jhansi and Nagpur etc. Further, the contents of the letter of Mr. Edmund, a missionary also strengthened the apprehensions of the Hindus. The event of March 29, 1857 of Barrackpore kindled the spirits of other sepoys and by the 11 May, 1857, almost half of the sepoys joined the great revolt. Various land revenue settlements introduced by the British; Dalhousie’s doctrine of lapse. Definitely the 1857 revolt was an eye-opener to the British as well as to the Indians. The levels of exploitation of Indians were so high, that even the British felt so sad and disturbed that they wrote, “India is as much a manufacturing country as she is an agricultural one. To reduce her now to an agricultural country would be an injustice to India.” While the above was the opinion of a Britisher, Mr. Martin, another Britisher, Mr Cope made the following statement before the Parliamentary Committee in 1840: “I certainly pity the East Indian labourer, but at the same time I have a great feeling for my family than for the East Indian labourer’s family. For me you were the one who ignited the feeling of self belief, perseverance and healthy competition in me apart for making me believe that I can achieve my goal, which once seemed to be distant reality. He’s been a role model in my life and I look up to him during my tough times. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Failure of Great Indian Revolt of 1857 and Its Causes, The Revolt of 1857 in India (Study Notes), Revolt of 1857 in India : Nature and Results, The Revolt of 1857 in India: Causes, Spread and Other Details, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. Finally, the suspicion that the greased cartridge which was used in Enfield rifles was filled with the fat of cow and pig made the sepoys to openly rebel by killing a British officer. She is a manufacturing country; her manufacturers of various descriptions have existed for ages, and have never been able to be completed by any nation wherever fair play has been given to them. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. The most well-known incident is that of Mangal Pandey, who was the first person to point a gun at a British officer and was later hanged for this. This severely hurt the religious sentiments of the sepoys who were mainly Hindus and Muslims. The process of learning here was fun, and burden free. Mangal Pandey was a represen­tative of the totality of the sepoys’ wrath against the British. Read more General Awareness articles in our Target General Studies section. (iii) Kunwar Singh of Avadh who had carved a base for himself in Azamgarh and Gazipur and breathed his last fighting in May 1858. • military causes. CAUSES OF REVOLT. 21 RELIGIOUS CAUSES Which of the following was not a cause of the revolt of 1857? Therefore, it was a protest by sepoys against the Company. The mutiny of sepoys started at Barackpore on 29 March, 1857 spread to Meerut by May 1857, and to Delhi by 12 May, 1857. The sever famines which devoured millions of people remained issues, that were never addressed. He was driven by conviction to bring all the Indian states ruled by local rulers into the fold of British administration. In 1806, the 4th Regiment rose in revolt against the new turban. Causes for Revolt of 1857: Political Causes: The political causes of the revolt may be traced to the British policy of expansion through the Doctrine of Lapse and direct annexation. The British were so arrogant and haughty, that a police regulation published by a magistrate at Agra categorically states “Every native, whatever his pretended rank may be, ought to be compelled, under heavy penalties, to salaam all English gentlemen in the streets and if the native is on horseback or in a carriage, to dismount and stand in a respectful attitude until the European has passed him.”. Privacy Policy3. In this revolt, human loss on both sides was considerable. Target Academy is an impressive institute of good repute. All thanks to SOORAJ SIR. Read about the policies followed by the British in India in British India: Administrative, Economic, Educational and Social Policies & Reforms, (Did You Know? A dozen British officers were killed. My source of inspiration, even after all these years, still lies within the four walls of Target Academy. Also Read: Causes of the Revolt of 1857. The Indian Sepoy were underpaid whereas their European counterpart were not. However, recent researches have proved that … Thanks for encouraging and building my confidence. Political Causes: Nana Sahib alias Dhondu Pant was refused pension, as he was the […] The Indian soldiers were introduced to the new Enfield Rifle for the first time. In one year, this coaching centre turned my incredulity of choosing Science into a confidence that is so often praised. Its cartridges had a greased cover which had to be bitten off before loading the cartridge in the rifle. • immediate cause… Further, the abolition of the monopoly of trade in 1813 of East India Company and the introduction of free trade by 1833 increased further the exploitation of the economy of India. South India was compar­atively peaceful because of the lukewarm support to the cause of the sepoys. The increasing activities of the Christian missionaries and the actual conversions made by them were taken as a proof of this fear. The Revolt of 1857 is also known as The Great Revolt of 1857 or the Sepoy mutiny of 1857. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan observes: “All persons, whether intelligent or ignorant, respectable or otherwise, believed that the government was really and sincerely desirous of interfering with the religion and customs of the people, converting them all, whether Hindus or Muhammadans to Christianity and forcing them to adopt the European manners and habits”. The revolt was the result of religious insult to the sepoys. I could study at IIM Indore’s IPM program (the pioneer batch 2011-16) just because of him! (iv) Begum Hazarat Mahal who also escaped to Nepal. Failure on the part of the British East India Company in honouring the provision of 1833 Charter Act that “no Indian shall by reason of his faith, place of birth, descent, complexion or any of them, be disabled from holding any place, office or employment under the East India Company”, convinced the educated Indians of the arrogant racial hatred of the British towards the natives of India. Under the doctrine of lapse, the British annexed any Indian state where the ruler did not have a male heir. Though the revolt failed, it shattered the myth of Pax Britannica and the invin­cibility of the British and created awareness in the Indians about the need for unified action in future to achieve their objective. I truly enjoyed studying because your classes were interesting and challenging. The Indian soldiers were introduced to the. Causes of 1857 Revolt The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. Not a shilling was spent from the British treasury on the defense of the India. Most Important Points on: Revolt of 1857. A large number of Indian rulers and chiefs were dislodged, thus arousing fear in the minds of other ruling families who apprehended a similar fate. The unjustified and unethical Doctrine of Lapse was the last straw on the camel’s back which made the native rulers take up arms and start revolt. The Magna Carta has come to be a very powerful symbol of liberty all over the world.). All these made the Indians come to the conclusion that their religion was in danger and this suspicion aroused the religious and social sentiment of the Hindus against the British. Sir’s teaching pattern is very distinguished and interesting. The Vellore Uprising was preceded by a number of protests by the Indian troops. Further the latest device of the Doctrine of Lapse implemented by Dalhousie dispossessed a group of native rulers and leaders and they joined hands with the rest of the population. which angered the local ruler, who had to now liv… There were political, economic, social, religious and military causes of the revolt. Very soon, the rebellion spread throughout northern and central India. The rebellious army reached Delhi on May 12, 1857. Added to thepolitical and administrative distrust and hatred, the economic exploitation, the social and religious discrimination of superiority complex viewing the Indians as racially inferior and culturally backward and their belief that God had created the white men to civilize the Indians and intol­erance of the idolatry of the Hindus by the Christian missionaries also created distrust between the natives and the British. 11.5 : It is Henry Hardinge. Annexation of territories by the British also annoyed the sepoys. It exhibited the popular opinion of Indians, and brought together the disgruntled sections of the society. The tenure of Dalhousie was pathetic as far as concerns of the Indian natives are concerned. (ii) Nanasaheb, the adopted son of the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, who led the mutiny at Kanpur and escaped to Nepal in the beginning of 1859. The army of Vellore mutinied against the British in 1806 opposing the replacement of turban by a leather cockade. The factors like localizing of risings, loyalty of the native princes, lack of efficient generals, lack of commonly agreed national level leaders, lack of adequate arms, proven communication system of the British and control of sea by British were ultimately responsible for the failure of the revolt of 1857. Target Academy is not just a brilliant coaching for the JEE aspirants but also a great personality development institution. Therefore, it is very significant. (v) Maulvi Ahmadullah who carried on the revolt around the borders of Avadh and Rohilkhand till his death in June 1858 and Tantia Tope, uprooted from his base on the Jamuna at Kalpi, reached Gwalior in June 1858, crossed the Narmada in October and was captured and put to death in 1859. The guilty sepoys were punished severely with 500 to 900 lashes. • social and religious causes. It helped me to get good marks in boards as well as a really great college. Sooraj Sir has been a guiding angel at every step of my life. 3. causes of the revolt of 1857 • political causes. In 1824, the sepoys of Barrakpore did not agree to proceed to Burma as their custom was against the crossing of the sea which results in the loss of the caste. In 1844, the Bengal army opposed the decision to go to Sind and wage war for the same reason mentioned above. We are aware that the action of Mangal Pandey, a sepoy of Barrackpore near Calcutta on 29 March, 1857 led to the mutiny of sepoys in the beginning which precipitated the revolt of the people. What is the Magna Carta? This negotiation was called the Magna Carta, and was the first legal document to include a clause of giving all free men “the right to justice and a free trial”. Sooraj Sir is one who can break the monotony, Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics is so often blamed to cause. Naturally, this type of reaction is justified as the Indians are the losers and the British gainers. The European juries allowed European criminals with little or no punishment. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! They were unable to carry through their early military successes. There was discrimination not only in the lower level, it prevailed in every … It can be conclu­sively said that the discontentment, suspicion, and hatred among all sections and displacement of earlier power structures led to the great revolt of 1857. (Find a list of competitive exams we cover here. Following are the Political causes of failure of 1857 mutiny. The Revolt of 1857 – the First War of Independence. The sepoys’ revolts were not a new phenomena and go back to the first decade of the 19th century. Sir’s guiding nature is the reason students stay in touch with him ALWAYS, every after passing out of class 12. Even today, sir is there to guide me. Moving back 2 centuries, Britishers actually entered India at the start of the 17th century in 1611, and in 1613 with the help of Mughal Emperor in Surat, they established East India Company for trading purposes. I think it is wrong to sacrifice the comforts of my family for the sake of the East Indian labourer because his condition happens to be worse than mine”. Lack of Societal Alternative The Indian Rebellion of 1857 had diverse political, economic, military, religious and social causes. The revolt was not an abrupt event but rather it was the summit of a century-long convention of furious well-known protection from British control. Not just to learn but if you wish to understand, not just to gain knowledge but if you wish to gain wisdom, not just to touch the clouds of your goal but if you wish to rule them, Target Academy is your destination. (iii) The British publicly showed discrimination in treatment between the native sepoy and the British in the matters of promotion, pension and service provi­sions and fear of forgoing their jobs agitated the minds of the sepoys. Target Academy Rocks!!! The parliamentary reports of 1840 also record that while the British cotton and silk goods imported into India paid a duty of VA per cent and woolen goods 2 per cent, Indian cotton goods exported to Britain paid 10 per cent, silk goods 20 per cent and the woolen goods 30 per cent. The intervention of the British in social traditions by prohibiting the practice of Sati in 1829, passing laws relating to succession of property in 1832 and 1856, Widow Remarriage Act in 1856 and the Religious Disabilities Act of 1856 further strengthened the view of the conservatives that the Hindu religion and customs were being tampered by the British with the specific objective of Christianizing India. The revolt of 1857 is considered the foundation of Indian Nationalism, and is often regarded as our first war of independence. Dec 08,2020 - Causes of revolt of 1857? In course of time, a vast store of explosive material had been collected. Besides the above political and administrative, economic, social and religious grievances, another major cause was the unrest of the sepoys in the army of the British. 16. To all students who are reading this, if you think of all your fav. Many causes led to the outbreak of Revolt of 1857. It is difficult to accept the conspiracy theory of the native rulers against the British. Thanks a lot sir…. There is a view that resentment was brewing since 1832 which took a shape in 1857. Early Uprisings; The revolt of 1857 After joining Target Academy I realised, whatever I had studied till then in my previous coaching did not stand me a chance in the engineering competitive exams. In a way, partially the outburst of 1857 was a revolt of the old against the new, of Indian conservatism against the arrogant British hegemony and Christian indoctrination. Thus, from the above discussion, we can say that the main causes of the Revolt of 1857 were due to various policies introduced by the British, the rapid spread of English education, imposing of heavy duties. So, we are going to see in-depth about the revolt of 1857 and the uprising before that too. Further, the open disrespect exhibited by the British towards the last of the Mughal ruler Bahadur Shah Zafar made the Muslims rise in revolt. The conservation of religion took the shape of rallying point in the revolt which was seen as a war of religion by the sepoys and the masses to some extent but religious grievances were not the total rallying points of the great revolt. After coming here, the real preparations for exams started. The Revolt of 1857 came to an end with the victory of the British. In the end, we may presume that the revolt of 1857 was the result of a culmination of popular dissatisfaction that had been simmering for a long time against the policies of the British in India – expansion, exploitation and economic drain and humiliation of the Indian spirit by advocating the white- man’s civilizing mission – factors of multiple dimension of direct and indirect, long run and short run and of immediate nature led to the revolt of 1857. The best teacher I have ever found, my role model. Indian Mutiny, widespread but unsuccessful rebellion begun in 1857 against British rule in India. The Revolt of 1857 which is called ‘Sepoy Mutiny’, ‘Great Revolt’ and the ‘First War of Indian Independence‘ is the watershed in the history of pre-independent and early colonial India. A group of historians and writers has asserted that the Revolt was the result of a widespread and well-organized conspiracy. Sooraj Sir is extremely adept at analysing the individual and collective needs of the students and works with them harmoniously. 3. It is so, as the one hundred years penetration of the British East India into different parts of India through wars and diplomacy and the introduction of alien revenue, judicial social intervention methods and language of English as the medium of instruction at the school and collegiate level destabilized the existing pre-British socio-cultural fabric. Further, the missionary activities of charitable and philanthropic nature were looked with suspicion as the missionaries used to heckle the Hindus for worshipping many gods and goddesses, and their efforts to convert to Christianity many economically and socially backward community people and in their educational institutions they began to openly canvas about Christianity. 1. The spark that led to a mutiny in several sepoy companies was the issue of new gunpowder cartridges for the Enfield rifle in February 1857. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Special attention is paid to competitive exams through Target+ courses, due to which I got to learn with the brightest minds from various schools in Lucknow. The End of the Revolt and its Significance: Eminent Awards (Part 1): Bharat Ratna & Padma Awards, British India: Administrative, Economic, Educational and Social Policies & Reforms, Paramilitary Forces & Special Forces of India, Syllabus, Important Topics, & Recommended Books, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5jLn8GgvrU&list=PLZny5GcdWLN55HJ-z0hU83EsSZ32r-o30, A guide, a motivator, a teacher and a counselor, our instructor… Sooraj Sir, Was the Revolt of 1857 the first rebellion against the British in India? When teachers such as Sooraj Sir are our mentors, the future is certainly as bright as the sun. By July 1858, the revolt was totally crushed but for local risings in certain areas. He listens to our problems, gives solutions, discusses current affairs to expand our horizon. The expansionist and annexationist policies of the British power in India made all the Indian rulers, big and small, Hindu and Muslim look with suspicion and develop hatred towards the British power in India. 4. Humiliation of the Indian sepoys. Thus, by 1857 the situation was very stormy and ready for inflammation by any factor and the greased cartridge affair acted as the last straw on the camel’s back. Target Academy is undoubtedly the BEST coaching in Lucknow. The immediate cause of the revolt was the introduction of the new Enfield rifle and the greased cartridge. Known for excellence and quality, Target Academy is an academic coaching institute for physics, chemistry and mathematics. I am glad I met you and came to Target Academy! With Sooraj Sir, you get to explore your strengths and work on your weaknesses. No. This was my favourite part here. Sooraj Sir is an amazing personality, full of knowledge. Annexation of Indian States by Doctrine of Lapse Policy . Every extra class was like adding extra marks to our board exams. He encourages his students to learn the subject by understanding the concept from its core,thereby enabling students to realize their true potential. The Indians in general did not accept the administrative changes initiated and implemented, as most of them were alien in nature and replaced the age-old existing rules and regulations. The peasant and tribal revolts of which we have studied in the previous pages also clearly reveal how the British had to face the opposition of the peasants and the tribal. Thank you so much for being a great teacher. The article is in continuation of our British India History articles. 11.5. You are TRULY THE BEST! The revolt of 1857 was called by many names Indian mutiny, Sepoy mutiny, the first war of independence. All these leaders no doubt were affected by the policies of the British in the last hundred years and had genuine grievance against the British. 11.6 : This picture point out the outwardly good position of the zamindars. There are certain political causes of the 1857 revolt .. such as . The Causes Of The Rebellion. A very significant rebellion took place even before than that –, The native sepoys rose in revolt in Vellore in. At Delhi, the sepoys selected Bahadur Shah Zafar as their leader and declared him as the emperor of India. It is believed by many historians that Lord Dalhousie laid the foundations of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The practice of sati was abolished. In 1215, King John of England had imposed heavy taxes on his barons to fund his foreign wars. How is the Vellore Mutiny different from other rebellions before it? Rev. 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