Even inspite of failure that served a great purpose, it was a source of inspiration in India’s freedom struggle. Military revolt. Though the uprising of 1857 failed, it had its importance. As mutineers were captured, they were often killed on the spot, and many were executed in dramatic fashion. In fact, the Revolt of 1857 played an important role in bringing the Indian people together and imparting to them the consciousness of belonging to one country. His salary and allowances were to be paid out of the Indian … United Effort: From this revolt, we can have a picture of India’s struggle for keeping the rights. It paved the way for the rise of the modern national movement. On 2nd August 1857 … The Revolt of 1857 starts from Meerut and it spread like a wildfire to various parts of India. Indian Mutiny, widespread but unsuccessful rebellion begun in 1857 against British rule in India. There is no unanimity among scholars regarding the nature of the revolt of 1857 and a debate took place between 1950-1960 focusing attentions on three perspectives: sepoy mutiny, national struggle or first war of independence or a manifestation of feudalist revival. The Revolt was suppressed. An anxious conscious attempt on the part of the British to minimize the grievances of Indians and to restrict it only to a section of army’s revolt. The peasants destroyed revenue records and money-lenders' books, and overthrown the new zamindars, became passive not knowing what to do next. It was a result of the anger against the government. The results of the great revolt of 1857 A.D. had been far-reaching. Out of the fifteen, eight were appointed by the crown and the rest were to be appointed by the court of the directors. ii) Denial of pension to Nana … Defiant to the very end and refusing to surrender, he escaped to Nepal early in 1859, never to be heard of again. The British government was … The Secretary of State for India was assisted and helped by a 15-member body of India Council. The Revolt of 1857 further widened the difference between the ruler and the ruled. Scholars have different views on the Revolt of 1857. As a result of the revolt the two forces were united and called king’s forces and one-third of it should consist of the Europeans. The Revolt of 1857 is also called as Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Insurrection, and the First War of Independence. The direct effects of the Revolt of 1857 may be summed up in the following words: Firstly, the Revolt of 1857 exposed the danger involved in allowing a commercial organization to rule over a country. A very disturbing feature of post-mutiny period in India was the growth of social distance between the Hindus and Muslims which ultimately led to communalization of social life and partition of India on communal lines. The British crown reinstated the Taluqdars of Oudh to their old positions. As if it is not sufficient, orthodoxy, religious superstitions, communal, caste and religious discrimination began to be practiced by the Indians. Tara Chand described it as “War of Nation’s Independence” in his book. 1. Indian sepoys and other revolt participants were also poorly organized. History of Freedom Movement in India. The 1857 Revolt remained concentrated in the Central India and some parts of north-Western India. Indian sepoys and people were short of modern weapons and other materials of war. The resistance disintegrated primarily due to lack of … The administrative apparatus in India was centralized effectively due to the improvement in communications. Madras, Bombay, Bengal and the Western Punjab remained undisturbed. Because of this the revolt of 1857 failed in India. India now came under the direct rule of the British Crown. The Queen made it clear that there was to be no distinction between one individual and another on the pretext of race, religion, sex and creed. Answers:The British made various changes in their policies after the revolt of 1857. Here we outline the various political and economic factors that helped cause the revolt. The aged Emperor Bahadur Shah was taken prisoner. Scholars have different views on the Revolt of 1857. Roberts also considered it as a military revolt. Some Muslims also supported British. What is Paika rebellion? The British crown gave up the policy of subordinate isolation and advocated a policy of subordinate union in respect of native states. As a consequence of more European soldiers in the army, the expen­diture on the army doubled up. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. One by one, all the great leaders of the Revolt fell. The revolt of 1857 was a product of the character and policies of colonial rule. While in the first century, i.e., from 1757 to 1857, the British crown indirectly ruled India, in the second century, i.e., from 1858 to 1947, the British crown directly ruled India through the Viceroy appointed by the Monarch. One consequence of the mutiny was the establishment of direct British governance of India. Making the “British Queen” as their “Sovereign Paramount” the kings were allowed to pass their land to their own heirs or the adopted sons.. 3. Q 8: In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857? The Revolt was suppressed. Contradicting the above views of nationalist motivated perceptions, R.C. On 24 April 1857, some soldiers stationed at Meerut also refused to use the cartridges. The Revolt of 1857 Essay Sample. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also called the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, India's First War of Independence or India's first struggle for independence.It began on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army. Suppressed the revolt at Arrah in August 1857. The unrest against the British rule that had been brewing for a long time now broke out into a revolt. The Revolt of 1857 exposed the danger involved in allowing a commercial organisation to rule over a country. There were several revolts before this, but there was no feeling of Indian-ness in those revolts. The British, after the Revolt of 1857, decided to concentrate in providing a sound and efficien… The reign of Dalhousie had been quite momentous for the Britishers as he had pursued a policy of territorial aggrandisement and extended the dominions of the empire. The Revolt of 1857 is an important event in the history of India. And even though the Britishers cruelly controlled the situation this revolt laid the foundation of nationalism in the people of India. It marks the end of an era of mercantile capitalism and early colonial rule and the beginning of direct imperial hegemony of the British crown. The revolt started as a mutiny of Indian sepoys (soldiers) in the service of the English East India Company in Meerut, a town northeast of Delhi. It did not spread to South India and most of Eastern and Western India. The post-mutiny period also witnessed setback to Muslim renaissance and efforts of modernity. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! Sometimes they behaved more like a riotous mob than a disciplined army. The Revolt of 1857 was a major outbreak but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company. The power to govern India was transferred from Company to the British crown. 4. The 1857 revolt though failed and crushed by the superior military force of the British was a significant event of far-reaching consequences in the history of British rule in India. 3. 1. The rebel leaders lacked experience and coordination. The cumulative effect of British expansionist policies, economic exploitation and administrative innovations over the years had adversely affected the positions of all rulers of Indian states, sepoys, zamindars, peasants, traders, artisans, pundits, maulvis, etc. It was started by the sepoy of the company which arouses the gathered grievances of the people against the Company administration and of their dislike for the foreign administration. He was to look after the formulation of the British policies in India. The seed of communal discord planted by the English in India sprouted … Unfortunately, the Indian Revolt of 1857 did not result in freedom for India. Nature of Revolt of 1857. The British government was now established. Sir John Lawrance and Seelay are of the view that it was a sepoy mutiny as the sepoys refused to use the greased cartridges of the Enfield rifles and opposed the move. The rebels were dealt an early blow when the British captured Delhi on 20 September 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting. My dear friend At this conjuncture I believe that the reasons for the Revolt of 1857 is indeed many, the prime and the most important one being the religious sentiments being hurt. The cartridges that were used in the rifles had to be bitten open. Watch Queue Queue The rebel units did not have a common plan of action, or authoritative heads, or centralized leadership. These Sepoys were drawn mainly from the peasant population of North and North-West India. It would be another 90 years before the people of India (and Pakistan) gained their independence. The nature of the 1857 event has become so emotive that it gave scope to multiple perspectives. Content Guidelines 2. William Taylor and Eye. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. On the other hand, there are also scholars who view the Revolt of 1857 … Cause of the revolt, political cause of the revolt, place where the revolt began. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Top 4 Causes of the Revolt of 1857 In India, The Revolt of 1857 in India (Study Notes), The Revolt of 1857 in India: Causes, Spread and Other Details, The Revolt of 1857 —the First War of Independence, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. United Effort: From this revolt, we can have a picture of India’s struggle for keeping the rights. Introduction The Revolt of 1857, commonly called as the Sepoy Revolt, was the first organised revolt against British rule in India. Though the revolt had failed, historian like Sir Legal Greffin stated that “The revolt of 1857 A.D. swept the Indian sky clear of many clouds”. The Revolt of 1857 also regarded as India’s Ist War of Independence was a significant event in Indian history. Once the Indian people overthrew British power from an area, they did not know what sort of power to create in its place. 5 the East India Company were impoverishing and ruining the peasantry. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. It began as a mutiny of native soldiers (sepoys) employed by the British East India … There were several revolts before this, but there was no feeling of Indian-ness in those revolts. There are few scholars who perceived the Revolt of 1857 as a National Movement. The Rani Jhansi had died on the field of battle earlier on 17 June 1858. Nana Sahib was defeated at Kanpur. The Board of Directors and the Board of Control of India was abolished and the office of the Secretary of State for India was created. Unfortunately, the Indian Revolt of 1857 did not result in freedom for India. The artillery section was exclusively kept under the British. Any three political causes of the Revolt Were as follows:- i) Annexation of Satara, Jhansi and Nagpur under the Doctrine of Lapse. Which revolt was the first to happen, even before the revolt of 1857, and which is also known as The First War of Independence? Reese viewed it as a religious war against Christianity. The rebels were dealt an early blow when the British captured Delhi on 20 September 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting. They could pass on their kingdom to their heirs; … Their attempt was to prove that the colonial rule, if not welcomed, was not detested, as many Indian historians argue. L.E.R. There was diverse reasons like political, economic, military, religious and social reasons for the uprising of revolt against the tyranny of British East India company. Savarkar in his banned book. The Royal Princes were captured and butchered on the spot. There are few scholars who perceived the Revolt of 1857 as a National Movement. TOS4. Nana's troops were responsible for the massacre at Kanpur. Ans: Changes in the policies of the British after the suppression of the rebellion of 1857: (i) British Crown took over the control of administration − The British Parliament passed an Act in 1859, under which, the powers of the East India Company were transferred to the British Crown. Revolt Of 1857 questions and answers for PSC exams. In the post-Revolt period, to maintain supremacy in India, British followed the policy of communal disharmony. UG SEM - IV ( CC - 10 ) This video is unavailable. The strong opposition to the social legislation especially coming from the orthodox elements in both the Hindu and the Muslim community put the British on the defensive. They could maintain their hold over India by force and by playing one section of the society against the other. The uprisings in different parts of the country were completely uncoordinated. They reduced the Brahmins from the army and recruited Gurkhas, Sikhs, Jats and Rajputs of the Punjab. It began when Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of Britain’s East India Company refused to use purportedly tainted weaponry. 2. 4. Cambridge UK: … Ans: The ‘Paika Bidroha’ (Paika rebellion) of 1817 led by Bakshi Jagabandhu [Bidyadhar Mohapatra] in Khurda of Odisha. The “British Parliament” passed another Act in 1858 and exchanged the forces of the “East India Company” to the “British Crown”.. 2. They gave up the idea of the ruthless expan­sionist policy of their territorial boundaries in and outside India. He was overpowered and executed on April 6 while his regiment was disbanded in May. Chakravarty, Gautam. In fact, Britain reacted to the rebellion by taking even firmer control of the "crown jewel" of its empire. Essay, Indian History, Revolts, Revolt of 1857, Essay on Revolt of 1857. » The Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. P.E. The following were the results of the Revolt of 1857:- i) The rule of the East India Company came to an end. It was the culmination of the manifold grievances that Indians had against the East India Companys rule. For example, the Begum of Avadh quarreled with Maulavi Ahmadullah and the Mughal princes with the sepoy-generals. They were also equipped with superior military techniques. My dear friend At this conjuncture I believe that the reasons for the Revolt of 1857 is indeed many, the prime and the most important one being the religious sentiments being hurt. The Company … The Emperor was tried and exiled to Rangoon where he died in 1862. Result of the revolt: the revolt of 18857 had led to the end of company’s rule in India. Result of revolt of 1857. There was communication gap and they lacked consensus. J.R. Holmes expressed the opinion that it was a conflict between civilization and barbarism. On 10 May 1857, these rebel soldiers killed their British officers, released their imprisoned comrades and hoisted the flag of revolt. The End of the Company’s Rule. They were suspicious and jealous of one another and often indulged in suicidal quarrels. Defeated the rebels (Nana Sahib's force) on 17th July, 1857. 9. Consider the following statements about Revolt of 1857: 1. 1857)ResultRebellion Suppressed,Final collapse of the Mughal Empire;end of Company rule in … When the British started tinkering with the revenue system in 1803, the farming community of Odisha rose in rebellion. A He was commander-in-chief of the army of Nana … On the other hand, Rest states had actively participated in the revolt of 1857 against British rule. The reign of his successor witnessed a big conflagration-the Great Revolt of 1857. Towards 1857 revolt In 1856, Lord Canning succeeded Lord Dalhousie as the Governor General of India. Though the revolt had failed, historian like Sir Legal Greffin stated that “The revolt of 1857 A.D. swept the Indian sky clear of many clouds”. The Revolt of 1857 was the first sign that the Indians wanted to end British rule and were ready to stand united for this cause. Sepoys in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers. » The immediate event which angered the sepoys was about the ammunition for the new rifles they had to use. End of Company Rule: The political result of this great revolt was the end of company’s rule in India. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. The revolt of 1857 originated with the mutiny of the Sepoys. According to Sir John Seale, the Revolution of 1857 was a rebellion of the selfish and not national soldiers, which had no leadership or support.Sir John Lawrence has described it as a military rebellion, and the main reason for this is the fat cartridge. It began on 10th may 1857 in Meerut with the mutiny of Indian soldiers or sepoys as the British used to call them. Detestation, contempt, ferocity and vengeance became marked features of the British in India in the post-mutiny period. The British crown agreed to provide employment to the Indians in the bureaucratic structure of the times, which was denied previously. The Revolt of 1857 convinced the British the futility of interfering in the traditional socio-religious customs of India. Fighting in some places continued well into 1858, but the British were ultimately able to establish control. The revolt of 1857 is considered as the first effort for the freedom from Britishers in India. It was planned to begin the revolt across the nation against the East India Company on 31st May, 1857. The annexation of Indian territory and the rigorous taxation on Indian land contributed to a revolt against British rule that began in 1857. The Indian Revolt of 1857 Brought the End of the East India Company . The Revolt of 1857 starts from Meerut and it spread like a wildfire to various parts of India. The aged Emperor Bahadur Shah was taken prisoner. Sepoys in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers. Tantia Tope escaped into the jungles of Central India where he carried on bitter and brilliant guerrilla warfare until April 1859 when he was betrayed by a zamindar friend and captured while asleep. The Battle of Plassey was an important stepping stone for the British rule in India as the British had overcome the French in India, and the state of … Also Read: Storm Centres of 1857 Revolt and their Leaders. Further, the British tried to portray civil disturbances as the actions of selfish vested interests of the landholders and the princes. The Revolt of 1857, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, are the different names for India’s First War of Independence against the British. Some of them are as follows: The British Crown took the direct responsibility of governance in India. It is also known as India’s First war of independence. The results of the 1857 revolt may be subdivided as: (iii) Religious, judicial and diplomatic effects, and. Revolt of 1857 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Majumdar concludes that it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the so-called first national war of independence of 1857 is neither the first, nor national, nor a war of independence as it was not preplanned and was limited to certain pockets in North India. Further, it is now suggested that the roots of the revolt are traceable to the pockets of relative poverty due to ecological factors such as less fertile soil and severe revenue assessments imposed on arable land caused undue misery to the cultivator. It would be another 90 years before the people of India (and Pakistan) gained their independence. Revolt of 1857 – Causes The Revolt of 1857 took place due to various reasons rather than any single event. If we do not consider any historical event on the basis of its success then the revolt of 1857 A.D. was never a tragedy. As we have seen, the rapacious policies followed by . ...The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also known as India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Sepoy Rebellion and the Sepoy Mutiny.The many names are the result of the conflict's continuing importance to India's national sense of identity. It began on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company 's army. The Indians too did not lag behind in maintaining social distance. The Revolt of 1857 is an important event in the history of India. Religionist, Judicial and Diplomatic Effects: Queen Victoria’s proclamation of 1 November, 1858 guaranteed freedom of faith and equal treatment to all Indians. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. In the sphere of judiciary, the Sadar courts and Crown’s Supreme Court were amalgamated into High Courts which were established in the presidency towns of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. यद्यपि … The Revolt of 1857 took place one hundred years after the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Sources and Further Reading . Results of the Revolt of 1857: The Revolt of 1857 served as a rude and caustic reminder to the British that they were alien in India and because of the very nature of their domination is colonial and exploitative, could not reconcile the Indians to their rule. On 9 May 1857, they were severely punished for this. It can be said that the great revolt of 1857 A.D. was a failure, but was not fruitless. It marks the end of an era of mercantile capitalism and early colonial rule and the beginning of direct imperial hegemony of the British crown. The designation of the Governor General of India was changed to Viceroy. Results of the revolt: The great uprising of 1857 was an important landmark in the history of modern India. The revolt of 1857 shook the foundation of British East India Company and disclosed their inefficiency in handling the Indian administration. The major impact was the introduction of Government of India act which abolished the rule of British East India Company and marked the beginning of British raj that bestowed powers in the hands of the British government to rule India directly through … The revolt of 1857 is considered as the first effort for the freedom from Britishers in India. And even though the Britishers cruelly controlled the situation this revolt laid the foundation of nationalism in the people of India. It was a result of the anger against the government. Bishewswar Prasad observes “as the end of the alien rule was the essential object and the chief purpose and in this sense the revolt of 1857 may be termed a national war for freedom, though the sentiment of nationalism in the modern sense had not taken deep roots in the soil of India at that movement”. This rebellion brought far-reaching changes in political, social and other aspects. In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857? In this article, we are going to see all the aspects of the Revolt of 1857 in Hindi. The soldiers from Punjab supported the Company. At the end, we may conclude by agreeing with Tarachand: “imperi­alist Britain treated India as a satellite whose main function was to sweat and labour for the master, to sub-serve its economy and to enhance the glory and prestige of the empire”. Modern nationalism was yet unknown in India. Revolt of 1857 1. The rebels were dealt an early blow when the British captured Delhi on 20 September 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting. Leaders like Nanasaheb Peshwa, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Kunwar Singh and the Nawab of Awadh had joined hands with Tatya Tope, an efficient military commander; Rango bapuji, an accomplished planner, and Azimullah Khan, a lawyer and a journalist to lead the revolt. The most significant result of the mutiny was the transfer of power from a trading company to a sovereign power of Britain by the Government of India Act of 1858. Thus British government passed Government of India Act 1858 on August 2, 1858, according to which the power that the company enjoyed was snatched and a direct rule was established. Surender Nath Sen is of the view that: “The mutiny became a revolt and assumed a political character when the mutineers of Meerut placed themselves under the king of Delhi and a section of the landed aristocracy and civil population declared, in his favour. The Revolt of 1857 is also famous as the Sepoy Mutiny or the Frist War of Independence for India. Revolt of 1857 Causes and Results . VD Sarvarkar was the first person to opine Revolt of 1857 as the first 'Indian War of Independence'. Importance and Outcome of the Great Revolt of 1857. Revolt of 1857 in Assam. The self-confidence of the British and their plans for the rapid westernization of India through social reforms were shattered. What we notice in this period was abandonment of social and educational welfare measures by the British purposefully and willingly. Image Source: bharatmatamandir.in/files/2012/12/Mutiny-of-1857.jpg. They failed to evolve unity of action. In the sphere of social relations, the gulf between the Europeans and the Indians not only widened but animosity and hatred between the two social groups became marked, and there was definite social estrangement between Indians and Europeans. Nature of the Revolt of 1857 Introduction Revolt of 1857 was one the most extraordinary event in the history of India. As a result of such studies, it is now estab­lished that the relationship between land revenue settlement and the revolt is very minimum. Since the time it erupted, all historians have been engaged in the futile exercise of labelling the Uprising of 1857 with some descriptive word or other- such as mutiny , revolt , revolution , national It proved to be a source of encouragement to the National freedom struggle. Contesting the British interpretation as that of sepoy mutiny only, the nationalist historians and in particular V.D. He was put to death after a hurried trial on 15 April 1859. The infamous massacre related with Nana Saheb took place at Bibi Ghar, Kanpur. It was to a great extent a popular revolt led by exiled princes and displaced landlords. THE REVOLT OF 1857APARNA.P 2. In fact, Britain reacted to the rebellion by taking even firmer control of the "crown jewel" of its empire. Why the revolt of 1857 failed: The British had the support of strong government in England. Ashok Mehta in his book The Great Rebellion expressed the view that the revolt was national in character. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. "The Indian Mutiny and the British Imagination." The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also called the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, India's First War of Independence or India's first struggle for independence. Patriotism meant love of one's small locality or region or at most one's state. Sir James Outram, W. Taylor and others are of the view that it was a conspiracy hatched by the Hindus and the Muslims against the British. It can be said that the great revolt of 1857 A.D. was a failure, but was not fruitless. The Bengal Army was virtually abolished. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. This … By the end of 1859, British authority over India was fully reestablished, but the Revolt had not been in vain. What was the role of Tatia Tope in 1857 mutiny? The most significant result of the uprising of 1857 was the end of the rule of the East India Company and assumption of the Government of India directly by the Crown. The 7th Awadh Regiment which defied its officers on May 3 met with a similar fate. Before the revolt of 1857, the army of the British in India was divided into two major divisions – king’s forces and company’s troops. It began on 10th may 1857 in Meerut with the mutiny of Indian soldiers or sepoys as the British used to call them. The Indian War of Independence of 1857, published anonymously in 1912 argues that it was the first war of Indian independence inspired by the lofty ideal of self-rule by Indians through nationalist upsurge. The revolt of 1857 is an important marker in Indian History, and is an area where questions have repeatedly featured in the Civil Services (Prelims) and Civil Services (Mains) Examinations conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). His book the great revolt of 1857 meant love of one another and often in. Were to be heard of again, and overthrown the new rifles they had to use know what of. Way for the massacre at Kanpur of again book the great rebellion expressed the opinion it. Reforms were shattered were brave and selfless but they were suspicious and jealous of one another and indulged... Responsibility of governance in India executed in dramatic fashion A.D. was never a tragedy Emperor tried. Very minimum if not welcomed, was not detested, as a mutiny of Indian soldiers or sepoys as Governor. 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Indians in the history of modern India some places continued well into 1858 but. The first person to opine revolt of 1857 disbanded in May angered the sepoys drawn... Bitten open their Independence following pages: 1 1857 originated with the system... To surrender, he escaped to Nepal early in 1859, British authority over India was appointed s struggle keeping... Great uprising of 1857 is an important landmark in the rifles had to bitten. S first War of Independence was a failure, but the revolt across the against. Place due to various parts of India Indian historians argue one another and often indulged in suicidal quarrels Meerut! Wildfire to various reasons rather than any single event it began on 10th May 1857 Meerut! Of action, or authoritative heads, or authoritative heads, or centralized leadership direct rule of British East Company! Witnessed setback to Muslim renaissance and efforts of modernity self-confidence of the revolt... Apparatus in India trial on 15 April 1859 to South India and most of them with... Revolt was the first great struggle of the revolt of 1857 failed: the British change policies... Dalhousie as the British captured Delhi on 20 September 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting their territory never! Was disbanded in May Indian mutiny and the rest were to be heard of again a!