The Westerbork camp had a "double life." Camp Westerbork also housed German film actress and cabaret singer Dora Gerson, who was interned there with her family before being sent to Auschwitz, and Professor Sir William Asscher, who survived the camp when his mother secured his family's release by fabricating English ancestry. From July 1942 - September 3, 1944. nearly 200,000 Jews were deported from the camp. Dampness, leaky roofs, and the fouling of straw and straw mattresses by prisoners suffering from diarrhea made difficult living conditions worse. The Westerbork camp was situated in the northeastern part of the Netherlands in the Dutch province of Drenthe, near the towns of Westerbork and Assen. These camps were opened in prior immigrants camps or army barracks. Rails-monument at Westerbork: broken rails of the former track which was used to transport Jewish people to and from the camp. Jona Oberski wrote of his experience as a small child at Westerbork in his book, Kinderjaren ("Childhood"), published in the Netherlands in 1978 and later made into the film, Jonah Who Lived in the Whale. Verifizierter Kauf. [1] Deportations began under the orders of Gestapo sub-Department IV-B4, which was headed by Adolf Eichmann. Overall, the conditions in the transit camps were similar to that of concentration camps – unsanitary and awful. She died there three months later.[6]. Westerbork concentration camp was, ironically, constructed by the Dutch government in 1939 as a haven for a tidal wave of German Jews fleeing the rising tide of antisemitism in Germany and the ultimate grasping of power by the Nazis which precipitated World War II. During this time, the camp was renamed Kamp Schattenberg. There was a school ( only for the "orphans", i.e. Whilst this section aims to give an overview of the SS concentration camp system, it is important to note that not all camps had the same, or similar, practices. Westerbork was considered by Nazi standards as “humane”. Of course, we do not pretend that the daily itinerary was the same in all concentration camps. those children who came without their parents), a hair-dresser, an orchestra and even a restaurant. Memorial for Westerbork Concentration Camp at Fold3.com - When the Nazi government began prosecuting Jews in Germany, many fled to the Netherlands for safety. Between July 1942, and September 1943, approximately 110,00 Jewish people passed through the two camps. Elie Cohen, a doctor, was in Westerbork for 8 months before being sent to Auschwitz. ACCESS AND USE. In addition, on 15 July the Dutch railroad company Nederlandse Spoorwegen received an order for the construction of a 5 km railroad into Camp Westerbork. 5,0 von 5 Sternen I was captivated by this true tale of love and hardship amidst WWII concentration camp conditions. Typescript report into conditions at Westerbork concentration camp entitled 'Kollektive Arbeit einer Widerstandsgruppe'; also correspondence between members of Wiener Library staff and Professor David Cohen regarding the reliability of the report as a historical document, including a short paper on the subject, 1944-1959. For other uses, see, Location of Westerbork within Netherlands, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Frankenhuis, "Première korte speelfilm Gemmeker met historische transportbeelden in kleur". The camp continued to function after the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940. Single inmates were placed in oblong barracks which contained a bathroom for each sex. Arrival of a transport at the Westerbork camp. Westerbork was completely disassembled in the 1960s by the Dutch government. In 1939, the Dutch government erected a refugee camp, Centraal Vluchtelingenkamp Westerbork, financed, ironically, partly by Dutch Jewry, in order to absorb fleeing Jews from Nazi Germany. This camp had been opened by the Dutch authorities during the summer 1939 in order to receive the Jewish refugees coming from Germany.The first refugees arrived in Westerbork on October 9, 1939. Several hundred prisoners lived in each such barrack. Browse 47 westerbork concentration camp stock photos and images available, or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. One of them commanded the prisoners camp, usually after being specially trained for this duty. Organization and administration of the camp; 4. Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork. In 1950, the Dutch government appointed Jewish historian Jacques Presser to investigate the events connected with the mass deportation of Dutch Jewry and the extent of the collaboration by the non-Jewish Dutch population. However, from 1951 to 1971, former indigenous Moluccan KNIL soldiers and their families were made to stay in the camp. Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(colorFamily.name)}} NLD The Netherlands Assen The concentration camp Westerbork was a transit camp of the Nazi system in Holland exterior view with barrack . Typescript report into conditions at Westerbork concentration camp entitled 'Kollektive Arbeit einer Widerstandsgruppe'; also correspondence between members of Wiener Library staff and Professor David Cohen regarding the reliability of the report as a historical document, including a short paper on the subject, 1944-1959. [4], Etty Hillesum was able to avoid the Nazi dragnet that identified Jews until April 1942. The Dutch government established a camp at Westerbork in October 1939 to intern Jewish refugees who had entered the Netherlands illegally. Presser also published a novel, The Night of the Girondins, which was set in Westerbork. She had learned about the war and the persecution of the Jews from the helpers and from radio broadcasts. In early 1942, the Germans enlarged the camp. [1], Notable prisoners in Westerbork included Anne Frank, who was transported to Camp Westerbork on August 4, 1944[4] and Etty Hillesum, each of whom wrote of their experiences in diaries discovered after the war. In July 1942, the German security police and the SS turned it into a transit camp to hold prisoners before deporting them to concentration camps in the east, where most perished. The film draws on several sources, including black-and-white still images from various archives, excerpts from older black-and-white films from French, Soviet, and Polish newsreels, footage shot by detainees of the Westerbork internment camp in the Netherlands, or by the Allies' "clean-up" operations, plus new color and black-and-white footage filmed at concentration camps in 1955. [2] Cultural activities provided by the Nazis for designated deportees included metalwork, jobs in health services, and other cultural activities. Language/scripts of material: German. [1] Jewish inmates were deported in waves to Auschwitz concentration camp (65 train-loads totaling 60,330 people), Sobibor (19 train-loads; 34,313 people), Theresienstadt ghetto, and Bergen-Belsen concentration camp (9 train-loads; 4,894 people). [3] Within the confines of the camp, German SS commanders were in charge of inmates, but squads of Jewish police and security were used to keep order and aid in transport, as noted above. Several hundred three-tier wooden bunk beds were installed in each building. [3] Only one-half square kilometer (119 acres) in area, the camp was not built for the purpose of industrial murder as were Nazi extermination camps. [14], In 2017, films commissioned by the German camp commander Albert Gemmeker from a Jewish prisoner, Rudolf Breslauer, to document everyday life in the Westerbork transit camp, were submitted by the Netherlands and included in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. [1][2], Camp Westerbork was utilized as a staging ground for the deportation of Jews. Here the lives of one hundred thousand Dutch Jews, Sinti and Roma are remembered. work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. 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